34
Insects have open circulatory systems in which blood, or hemolymph, circulates through the body cavity rather than through closed blood vessels. Birds, like other vertebrates, have closed circulatory systems in which blood remains within arteries, veins, and capillaries as it circulates. Based on their difference in circulatory system, which of the following statements best describes an organism that would be favored by selection during a food shortage?
  1. Insects would be favored because an open circulatory system requires less energy.
  2. Insects would be favored because an open circulatory system stores energy.
  3. Birds would be favored because a closed circulatory system loses less energy to heat.
  4. Birds would be favored because a closed circulatory system is more efficient at delivering nutrients.
35.
Illustrated side view of bee showing labeled leaders to areas of hearts, ostia (openings in heart) on the dorsal aspect (top) of bee body, blood vessel running across top of bee body, and body cavity labeled on bottom of bee body.This diagram shows how insects have a heart that is elongated throughout much of their body. This is opposed to the heart of vertebrates, such as humans, which does not spread throughout the length of the body. Why was it likely advantageous for insects to evolve an elongated heart as opposed to the centrally located heart of vertebrates?
  1. Because an elongated heart allows blood to easily reach all the parts of the body from the heart.
  2. Because the elongated heart allows more blood to reach all the parts of the body, it allows for more nutrient exchange.
  3. Because an elongated heart allows blood to easily return to the heart from a few points within the body cavity.
  4. Because an elongated heart allows blood to easily return to the heart from most points within the body cavity.
36
Insects have open circulatory systems in which blood, or hemolymph, circulates through the body cavity rather than through closed blood vessels. Birds, like other vertebrates, have closed circulatory systems in which blood remains within arteries, veins, and capillaries as it circulates. How has this difference most likely influenced the evolution of birds and insects?
  1. The open circulatory system of birds warms their entire body quicker, allowing them to live in colder climates more successfully than insects.
  2. The closed circulatory system allows blood flow to increase to the flight muscles during flight, allowing insects to be better fliers than birds.
  3. The greater efficiency of a closed circulatory system allowed birds to become larger than insects.
  4. The simplicity of the open circulatory system allows insects to have a higher metabolism than birds.
37
Serum is used to diagnose and monitor diseases, and it is also used to classify blood types. Which of the following statements best describes serum?
  1. It is a liquid consisting of 90% water and has coagulation factors.
  2. It is plasma without the coagulation factors.
  3. Serum is only made of albumin.
  4. Serum is the same substance as interstitial fluid.
38
Explain how blood types are distinguished from one another.
  1. Blood types are distinguished on the basis of the presence or absence of different carbohydrates found on the surface of red blood cells.
  2. Blood types are distinguished on the basis of the presence or absence of different proteins found inside the red blood cells.
  3. Blood types are distinguished on the basis of the presence or absence of different lipids found on the surface of red blood cells.
  4. Blood types are distinguished based on the presence or absence of different antigens found on the surface of the red blood cells.
39
The inflammatory response involves increasing blood flow to areas of the body that contain immune system cells fighting a pathogen or foreign object. The inflammatory response is an example of a positive feedback loop. Based on this, what would cause the inflammatory response to stop in a certain area of the body?
  1. The white blood cells destroy all of the pathogens/foreign objects.
  2. The white blood cells disperse away from the site.
  3. More white blood cells arrive to fight the pathogens/foreign objects.
  4. Fewer white blood cells are needed to finish fighting the infection
40
________ is the phase of the cardiac cycle where the heart contracts, which pushes out the blood and pumps it around the body.
  1. diastole
  2. cardiac output
  3. myocardial infarction
  4. systole
41
In routine physicals, doctors often test for problems with the electrical activity of your heart. A(n) _____ can measure the electrical impulses in the heart.
  1. endocardium
  2. electrocardiogram (ECG)
  3. peripheral resistance
  4. cardiac output
42

Cross section of blood vessel showing four layers labeled from innermost to outermost: A, B, C, and D.

The diagram shows a cross section of a blood vessel. Which part of the labeled structure would allow vasodilation in the blood vessel and under what conditions would vasodilation occur?

  1. Part B would allow vasodilation in the blood vessel if the blood vessel brings blood to relatively inactive cells, such as fat cells.
  2. Part C would allow vasodilation in the blood vessel if the heart and body’s metabolism slow.
  3. Part B would allow vasodilation in the blood vessel if the blood vessel takes blood away from an active organ system.
  4. Part C would allow vasodilation in the blood vessel if the blood vessel takes blood to a muscle cell that is contracting quickly.
43

Cross sections of artery (left) and vein (right). Labeled are (top to bottom) lumen, valve (vein only), tunica intima (endothelium), tunica media (smooth muscle and elastic fibers), tunica externa (connective tissue and elastic fibers)

The diagram shows a cross section of an artery and vein. What is the function of the tunica externa and why is it thicker in the artery than in the vein?

  1. The tunica externa prevents blood cell adhesion to the wall of the vessel. It is thicker in the artery to protect against the higher blood pressure found in arteries.
  2. The tunica externa protects the vessel from wear and tear and also provides support for the vessel. It is thicker in the artery to protect against the higher blood pressure found in arteries.
  3. The tunica externa protects the vessel from wear and tear and provides support for the vessel. It is thicker in the artery to protect against the lower blood pressure found in arteries.
  4. The tunica externa prevents blood cell adhesion to the wall of the vessel. It is thicker in the artery to protect against the lower blood pressure found in arteries.