1
Which of the following organisms has an open circulatory system?
  1. a cat
  2. a bee
  3. a human
  4. a bird
2
What is an advantage of an open circulatory system?
  1. It uses less metabolic energy.
  2. It enables an organism to move faster.
  3. It is a more efficient way to move gases, nutrients, and waste around an organism’s body.
  4. It allows organisms to grow larger.
3
Which of the following statements about circulatory systems is false?
  1. In closed circulatory systems, blood flows through vessels that are separate from the interstitial fluid of the body.
  2. The earthworm has a closed circulatory system.
  3. In an open circulatory system, hemolymph empties into the body cavity.
  4. Lobsters are organisms that have closed circulatory systems.
4
Which of the following statements best defines the open circulatory system?
  1. In an open circulatory system, blood mixes with interstitial fluid in the hemocoel.
  2. In an open circulatory system, the blood is separated from the bodily interstitial fluid and contained blood vessels.
  3. Blood circulates unidirectionally from the heart around systemic circulatory root.
  4. An open circulatory system uses more energy than a closed circulatory system.
5
A simple organism such as a jellyfish uses _____ to exchange gases and nutrients with their surrounding environment.
  1. blood
  2. diffusion
  3. atria
  4. blood vessels
6
Fish and birds have closed circulation. They both have a systemic circulatory system, which delivers blood from the heart and out to the organs of the body. Birds differ from fish in that they have a circuit that leads through the lungs and back to the heart. What is this called?
  1. pulmonary circulatory circuit
  2. gill circulatory circuit
  3. pulmocutaneous circulatory circuit
  4. lymph circulatory circuit
7.
Two-column table: left head: Organism; right head: Method of circulation
 Organism A: Method: Closed- 2-chambered heart
 Organism B: Closed within 4-chambered heart
 Organism C: Open with some closed arterial vessels
 Organism D: Closed within 3-chambered heart
 Organism E: Open within hemocoel
 Organism F: DiffusionA student is attempting to reorganize some preserved animals in the biology lab that have lost their labels. The student notices there are some notes on each jar, providing information on each animal’s classification. The student labels the unknown animals A-F and enters each animal’s circulatory system characteristics in a table. If the student wished to create a phylogeny of organisms A through F, which organism would likely be on the extreme right of the phylogenetic tree?
  1. organism A
  2. organism B
  3. organism E
  4. organism F
8.
Two-column table: left head: Organism; right head: Method of circulation
 Organism A: Method: Closed- 2-chambered heart
 Organism B: Closed within 4-chambered heart
 Organism C: Open with some closed arterial vessels
 Organism D: Closed within 3-chambered heart
 Organism E: Open within hemocoel
 Organism F: DiffusionA student is attempting to reorganize some preserved animals in the biology lab that have lost their labels. The student notices there are some notes on each jar, providing information on each animal’s classification. The student labels the unknown animals A-F and enters each animal’s circulatory system characteristics in a table. If the student wished to create a phylogeny of organisms A through F, in what order would the organisms most likely appear on the tree, from left to right, and why?
  1. The order would be F, E, C, A, B, D as the general trend in circulatory system evolution is toward increasingly closed systems.
  2. The order would be B, D, A, C, E, F as the general trend in circulatory system evolution is toward increasingly open systems.
  3. The order would be F, E, C, A, D, B as the general trend in circulatory system evolution is toward increasingly closed systems.
  4. The order would be F, E, C, D, B, A as the general trend in circulatory system evolution is toward increasingly open systems.
9
Differences in human blood types show how genetic differences have evolved over time, affecting red blood cell structure. What is the basis for blood type classifications?
  1. It is based on antigens made of carbohydrates, specifically glycoside and N-acetylglucosamine, found on the surface of red blood cells.
  2. It is based on antigens made of proteins, specifically glycolipids and glycoproteins, found on the surface of red blood cells.
  3. It is based on antigens made of proteins, specifically peripheral and integral proteins, found on the surface of the red blood cell.
  4. It is based on antigens made of lipids, specifically glycerophospholipids, found on the surface of red blood cells.
10
If a person has blood type AB/Rh-, what antibodies will be found in the blood?
  1. A antibodies
  2. A antibodies and B antibodies
  3. Rh antibodies
  4. B antibodies
11
Components found in human blood include white blood cells, red blood cells, and _______.
  1. platelets
  2. ostia
  3. hemolymph
  4. cardiomyocytes
12
Up to four components can be derived from donated blood. One of those components is plasma. Which of the following is not a basic component of plasma?
  1. water
  2. proteins
  3. salts
  4. red blood cells
13
Many platelets converge and stick together at a wound site, eventually forming a platelet plug, also called a fibrin clot. Platelets continue to arrive at the wound site until the plug is completely formed. Describe the feedback mechanisms taking place and predict what would likely happen if part of the platelet plug broke away before the wound was healed.
  1. A positive feedback loop, which would restart if part of the platelet plug broke away, calling more platelets to the site to repair the broken plug.
  2. A negative feedback loop, which would restart if part of the platelet plug broke away, calling more platelets to the site to repair the broken plug.
  3. A positive feedback loop, which would not restart if part of the platelet plug broke away.
  4. A negative feedback loop, which would not restart if part of the platelet plug broke away.
14

Illustration of a wound site on the wall of a blood vessel with fibrinogen collecting at the site and a pointer labeling the area “clot.”

The diagram shows a fibrin clot forming within a blood vessel. What constituents of the blood interact to form the clot?

  1. red blood cells, serum, and vitamin K
  2. ribrin, megakaryocytes and blood proteins
  3. granulocytes, platelets and red blood cells
  4. platelets, fibrinogen, and clotting factors
15

Red blood cells labeled O, A, B, AB; A has blue shapes on the surface, B has green shapes on the surface, and AB has blue and green shapes on the surface.

The diagram models the four different types of red blood cells in humans. Describe what is represented by the colored shapes on the surface of the cells and explain their function.

  1. Antigens, which identify the red blood cells as part of the body, as opposed to foreign red blood cells, which may be attacked by antibodies within the blood.
  2. Glycoproteins, which identify the red blood cells as part of the body, as opposed to foreign red blood cells, which may be attacked by antigens within the blood.
  3. Glycoproteins which identify the red blood cells as part of the body, as opposed to foreign red blood cells, which may be attacked by antibodies within the blood.
  4. Antibodies which identify the red blood cells as part of the body, as opposed to foreign red blood cells, causing neutralization of the foreign cells.
16
Your heart is a pump that circulates blood and oxygen around your body. Which of the following statements about the circulatory system is false?
  1. Blood in the pulmonary veins is deoxygenated.
  2. Blood in the inferior vena cava is deoxygenated.
  3. Blood in the pulmonary artery is deoxygenated.
  4. Blood in the aorta is oxygenated.
17
Which of the following statements about the heart is false?
  1. The mitral valve separates the left ventricle from the left atrium.
  2. Blood travels through the bicuspid valve to the left atrium.
  3. Both the aortic and the pulmonary valves are semilunar valves.
  4. The mitral valve is an atrioventricular valve.
18
In a healthy heart, a heartbeat begins within an electrical signal from which part of the heart?
  1. bundle of His
  2. atrioventricular (AV) node
  3. sinoatrial (SA) node
  4. atrial diastole
19
Describe the cardiac cycle and explain what drives it.
  1. The heart contracts to pump blood through the body during systole and is filled with blood during diastole. An electrical charge spontaneously pulses from SA node causing two atria to contract. The pulse reaches AV node where it pauses before spreading to the walls of the ventricles. It enters the bundle of His, then to left and right bundle branches extending through the interventricular septum. Purkinje fibers conduct impulse from the apex up the ventricular myocardium, causing the ventricles to contract. This pause allows the atria to empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles pump out the blood.
  2. The heart contracts to pump blood through the body during diastole and is filled with blood during systole. An electrical charge spontaneously pulses from SA node causing two atria to contract. The pulse reaches AV node where it pauses before spreading to the walls of the ventricles. It enters the bundle of His, then to left and right bundle branches extending through the interventricular septum. Purkinje fibers conduct the impulse from the apex up the ventricular myocardium, causing the ventricles to contract. This pause allows the atria to empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles pump out the blood.
  3. The heart contracts to pump blood through the body during systole and is filled with blood during diastole. An electrical charge spontaneously pulses from AV node causing two atria to contract. The pulse reaches SA node where it pauses before spreading to the walls of the ventricles. It enters the bundle of His, then to left and right bundle branches extending through the interventricular septum. Purkinje fibers conduct impulse from the apex up the ventricular myocardium, causing the ventricles to contract. This pause allows the atria to empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles pump out the blood.
  4. The heart contracts to pump blood through the body during systole and is filled with blood during diastole. An electrical charge spontaneously pulses from SA node causing two atria to contract. The pulse reaches AV node where it pauses before spreading to the walls of the ventricles. It enters the Purkinje fibers, then to left and right bundle branches extending through the interventricular septum. The bundle of His conduct impulse from the apex up the ventricular myocardium, causing the ventricles to contract. This pause allows the atria to empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles pump out the blood.
20
Compare and contrast veins and arteries.
  1. Both veins and arteries have three distinct layers. Veins take blood away from the heart and arteries bring blood back to the heart.
  2. Both veins and arteries have three distinct layers. Arteries take blood away from the heart and veins bring blood back to the heart.
  3. Both veins and arteries have valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Arteries take blood away from the heart and veins bring blood back to the heart.
  4. Both veins and arteries have valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins take blood away from the heart and arteries bring blood back to the heart.
21

Illustration of human heart with the left atrium and ventricle shaded red and the right atrium and ventricle shaded blue; the sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node are labeled, with the sinoatrial node positioned at the top of the right atrium and the atrioventricular nose at the juncture of the right atrium and ventricle on the exterior of the heart. The Purkinje fiber are depicted between the right and left ventricles branching mid-way down.

The diagram below shows the neural structures that control and coordinate the beating of the heart. How would the cardiac cycle be affected if neural signals were blocked within the Purkinje fiber?

  1. The atria and ventricles would contract at the same time.
  2. The ventricles would not contract.
  3. The atria would contract first, followed by the ventricles.
  4. Only the left atrium would contract.
22

Illustration of human heart with the left atrium and ventricle shaded red and the right atrium and ventricle shaded blue; the sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node are labeled, with the sinoatrial node positioned at the top of the right atrium and the atrioventricular nose at the juncture of the right atrium and ventricle on the exterior of the heart. The Purkinje fiber are depicted between the right and left ventricles branching mid-way down.

The diagram shows the neural structures that control and coordinate the beating of the heart. Explain fully how the cardiac cycle would be affected if the signal was blocked at the atrioventricular node and why.

  1. The atria would contract, but the ventricles would not, because the atrioventricular node passes signals to the Purkinje fibers, which allow the ventricles to contract.
  2. The ventricles would contract, but the atria would not, because the atrioventricular node passes the signal to the Purkinje fibers, which allow the ventricles to contract.
  3. The atria would contract, but the ventricles would not, because the atrioventricular node passes the signal to the Purkinje fibers, which allow the atria to contract.
  4. The ventricles would contract, but the atria would not, because the atrioventricular node passes the signal to the Purkinje fibers, which causes the atria to contract.