Which type of skeletal system of animals is formed by the pressure exerted by the aqueous contents of the coelom on surrounding organs?
  1. hydrostatic skeleton
  2. exoskeleton
  3. axial skeleton
  4. appendicular skeleton
The skeletal system is necessary to support the body, protect internal organs, and allow movement. Which of the following organisms must shed and then regenerate its skeletal system as it grows?
  1. earthworm
  2. lobster
  3. snake
  4. sea anemone
Which of the following is a role of the human vertebral column?
  1. to protect the heart and lungs
  2. to support the head
  3. to attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton
  4. to permit locomotion
Abnormalities of the thoracic cage are relatively rare, but when they exist they can cause disorders. Which of the following would most be at risk if someone had a defective thoracic cage?
  1. middle ear
  2. brain
  3. spinal cord
  4. heart
Which type of skeletal system of animals is composed of a hard skeletal layer found on the exterior of the organism?
  1. hydrostatic skeleton
  2. exoskeleton
  3. axial skeleton
  4. appendicular skeleton
Which type of organism moves by peristaltic muscle contraction, extending its body in one direction, then shortening and pulling itself along a surface?
  1. ants
  2. lizards
  3. sea stars
  4. sponges
Which type of bone is cuboidal in shape and may be found in the wrist and ankle?
  1. sesamoid bones
  2. sutural bones
  3. short bones
  4. flat bones
The bones of human skeletons are classified by their shape. How does the structure of sesamoid bones differ from that of short bones?
  1. Sesamoid bones are small and flat, whereas short bones are approximately equal in height and width.
  2. Sesamoid bones are thin and broad, whereas short bones have a central shaft and two ends.
  3. Sesamoid bones are small, flat, and irregularly shaped, whereas short bones are cuboidal in shape.
  4. Sesamoid bones are thin and broad, whereas short bones are small and flat.
The cells responsible for bone resorption are_____.
  1. osteoclasts
  2. osteoblasts
  3. fibroblasts
  4. osteocytes
A patient was diagnosed with low calcium levels in the blood, which affected nervous system and muscle functions. You decide to examine the functioning of various cells composing the patient’s bone tissue. Which type of bone cell is most likely dysfunctional?
  1. osteoclasts
  2. osteoblasts
  3. osteoprogenitor cells
  4. osteocytes
Which of the following bones or bone structures forms primarily due to endochondral ossification?
  1. skull
  2. clavicle
  3. mandible
  4. femur
What outcome might you expect in an individual with premature epiphyseal plate closure?
  1. overly thick bones
  2. short stature
  3. tall stature
  4. overly thin bones
Which type of bone has a central shaft and two rounded ends?
  1. flat bones
  2. irregular bones
  3. sutural bones
  4. long bones
Synchondroses and symphyses are connected by _____.
  1. fibers
  2. synovial fluid
  3. cartilage
  4. condyloid
_____ is a characteristic of the synovial fluid.
  1. Stability
  2. Lubrication
  3. Minor movement
  4. Increase of friction
Which of the following is an example of a pivot joint?
  1. elbow
  2. thumb
  3. hip
  4. the joint of the wrist
Synovial joints allow different types of movement. Turning your head to look over your shoulder is an example of _____.
  1. abduction
  2. medial rotation
  3. lateral rotation
  4. adduction
Which of the following is a fibrous joint?
  1. suture
  2. planar joint
  3. hinge joint
  4. pivot joint
Joints are classified based on the material composing the joint and the presence or absence of a cavity in the joint. Which of the following are the weakest joints?
  1. synchondrosis
  2. fibrous
  3. synovial
  4. symphyses
_____ muscles are also called voluntary muscles.
  1. Cardiac
  2. Smooth
  3. Striated
  4. Skeletal
Which of the following best describes a function of smooth muscle tissue?
  1. It affects the flow of blood and blood pressure
  2. It stimulates contraction of the heart
  3. It changes your facial expression.
  4. It maintains your posture.
In relaxed muscle, the myosin binding site on actin is blocked by _____.
  1. ATP
  2. tropomyosin
  3. the cross-bridge
  4. troponin
Which of the following statements does not accurately describe muscle contraction?
  1. During muscle contraction, the sarcomere shortens.
  2. During muscle contraction, the thick and thin filaments shorten.
  3. During muscle contraction, the H zone shortens.
  4. During muscle contraction, the A band does not shorten.
The small structures that make up myofibrils are called ______.
  1. sarcolemma
  2. myosins
  3. myofilaments
  4. sarcomeres