The pleural cavity is part of which cavity?
  1. dorsal
  2. thoracic
  3. abdominal
  4. pericardial
A plane that divides an animal into dorsal and ventral portions is the ____ plane.
  1. sagittal
  2. midsagittal
  3. frontal
  4. transverse
What is the term for a hard covering or shell that provides protection and muscle attachment?
  1. apodeme
  2. fusiform
  3. exoskeleton
  4. endotherm
Which organism has a fusiform shape?
  1. elephant
  2. dolphin
  3. spider
  4. human
Which type of animal maintains a constant internal body temperature?
  1. endotherm
  2. ectotherm
  3. poikilotherm
  4. fusiform
Smaller endothermic animals have _______ surface area for their mass compared with larger endothermic animals.
  1. equal
  2. greater
  3. less
  4. no
What is the term for epithelial cells that are composed of multiple layers?
  1. simple
  2. stratified
  3. squamous
  4. transitional
Which type of epithelial cell is best adapted to aid diffusion?
  1. squamous
  2. cuboidal
  3. columnar
  4. transitional
Why do osteoclasts need to break down bone?
  1. to deposit bone material into the bone matrix
  2. to facilitate osteoclast persistence without using excess energy
  3. to provide access to calcium in the tissue
  4. to facilitate compact bone structure
Plasma is the ____.
  1. fibers in the blood
  2. matrix of the blood
  3. cell that phagocytizes bacteria
  4. cell that functions in response to antigens
Why is it necessary for most muscle cells to be under voluntary control?
  1. to facilitate response to local conditions of tissues
  2. to facilitate movement of bone
  3. to speed up or slow down the autonomic nervous system
  4. to facilitate movement of internal organs
Cardiac muscle contains specialized regions along the plasma membrane called intercalated discs. What is the role of intercalated discs?
  1. efficiently pass electrical impulses between cardiac cells
  2. facilitate immune response to foreign antigens
  3. cushion body organs from damage
  4. keeps blood vessels in place
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus is the ____.
  1. axon
  2. dendrite
  3. cell body
  4. oligodendrocyte
Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes manufacture a lipid called myelin. Which statement best describes the function of this lipid?
  1. regulates the chemical environment
  2. sends input
  3. receives input
  4. improves signal transfer efficiency
Animals maintain an overall steady state of internal conditions by ___.
  1. ectothermy
  2. homeostasis
  3. basal metabolic rate
  4. standard metabolic rate
To what does the term “equilibrium” refer in the context of organismal homeostasis?
  1. control mechanisms that amplify a response
  2. control mechanisms that increase or decrease a stimulus
  3. the target point in homeostasis
  4. body functions are maintained within a given range
What type of feedback loop pushes an organism’s physiology further away from it normal setpoints?
  1. positive feedback loop
  2. negative feedback loop
  3. set point
  4. receptor
When faced with a sudden drop in environmental temperature, an endothermic animal will ____.
  1. experience a substantial drop in its body temperature
  2. find a warm rock on which to bask
  3. increase muscle activity to generate heat
  4. increase fur or fat to increase insulation
Homeostasis is primarily controlled by _______ feedback loops.
  1. positive
  2. negative
  3. acclimatization
  4. receptor
Which is an example of negative feedback?
  1. lowering of blood glucose after a meal
  2. blood clotting after an injury
  3. lactation during nursing
  4. uterine contractions during labor
Which method of heat exchange occurs during direct contact between the source and the animal?
  1. radiation
  2. evaporation
  3. convection
  4. conduction
Which of the following is a strategy that may be employed by an ectotherm to immediately increase body temperature?
  1. Consume more food to increase fat as insulation.
  2. Increase amount of vasodilation.
  3. Increase amount of muscle contraction.
  4. Sit on a warm rock.