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acclimatization
alteration in a body system in response to environmental change
alteration
change of the set point in a homeostatic system
apodeme
ingrowth of an animal’s exoskeleton that functions as an attachment site for muscles
asymmetrical
describes animals with no axis of symmetry in their body pattern
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
metabolic rate at rest in endothermic animals
canaliculus
microchannel that connects the lacunae and aids diffusion between cells
cartilage
type of connective tissue with a large amount of ground substance matrix, cells called chondrocytes, and some amount of fibers
chondrocyte
cell found in cartilage
columnar epithelia
epithelia made of cells taller than they are wide, specialized in absorption
connective tissue
type of tissue made of cells, ground substance matrix, and fibers
cuboidal epithelia
epithelia made of cube-shaped cells, specialized in glandular functions
dorsal cavity
body cavity on the posterior or back portion of an animal; includes the cranial and vertebral cavities
ectotherm
animal incapable of maintaining a relatively constant internal body temperature
endotherm
animal capable of maintaining a relatively constant internal body temperature
epithelial tissue
tissue that either lines or covers organs or other tissues
estivation
torpor in response to extremely high temperatures and low water availability
fibrous connective tissue
type of connective tissue with a high concentration of fibers
frontal (coronal) plane
plane cutting through an animal separating the individual into front and back portions
fusiform
animal body shape that is tubular and tapered at both ends
hibernation
torpor over a long period of time, such as a winter
homeostasis
dynamic equilibrium maintaining appropriate body functions
lacuna
space in cartilage and bone that contains living cells
loose (areolar) connective tissue
type of connective tissue with small amounts of cells, matrix, and fibers; found around blood vessels
matrix
component of connective tissue made of both living and non-living (ground substances) cells
midsagittal plane
plane cutting through an animal separating the individual into even right and left sides
negative feedback loop
feedback to a control mechanism that increases or decreases a stimulus instead of maintaining it
osteon
subunit of compact bone
positive feedback loop
feedback to a control mechanism that continues the direction of a stimulus
pseudostratified
layer of epithelia that appears multilayered, but is a simple covering
sagittal plane
plane cutting through an animal separating the individual into right and left sides
set point
midpoint or target point in homeostasis
simple epithelia
single layer of epithelial cells
squamous epithelia
type of epithelia made of flat cells, specialized in aiding diffusion or preventing abrasion
standard metabolic rate (SMR)
metabolic rate at rest in ectothermic animals
stratified epithelia
multiple layers of epithelial cells
thermoregulation
regulation of body temperature
torpor
decrease in activity and metabolism that allows an animal to survive adverse conditions
trabecula
tiny plate that makes up spongy bone and gives it strength
transitional epithelia
epithelia that can transition for appearing multilayered to simple; also called uroepithelial
transverse (horizontal) plane
plane cutting through an animal separating the individual into upper and lower portions
ventral cavity
body cavity on the anterior or front portion of an animal that includes the thoracic cavities and the abdominopelvic cavities