antibiotic resistance
ability of an organism to be unaffected by the actions of an antibiotic
biomarker
individual protein that is uniquely produced in a diseased state
biotechnology
use of biological agents for technological advancement
cDNA library
collection of cloned cDNA sequences
cellular cloning
production of identical cell populations by binary fission
chain termination method
method of DNA sequencing using labeled dideoxynucleotides to terminate DNA replication; it is also called the dideoxy method or the Sanger method
clone
exact replica
contig
larger sequence of DNA assembled from overlapping shorter sequences
cytogenetic mapping
technique that uses a microscope to create a map from stained chromosomes
deoxynucleotide
individual monomer (single unit) of DNA
dideoxynucleotide
individual monomer of DNA that is missing a hydroxyl group (–OH)
DNA microarray
method used to detect gene expression by analyzing an array of DNA fragments that are fixed to a glass slide or a silicon chip to identify active genes and identify sequences
expressed sequence tag (EST)
short STS that is identified with cDNA
false negative
incorrect test result that should have been positive
foreign DNA
DNA that belongs to a different species or DNA that is artificially synthesized
gel electrophoresis
technique used to separate molecules on the basis of size using electric charge
gene targeting
method for altering the sequence of a specific gene by introducing the modified version on a vector
gene therapy
technique used to cure inheritable diseases by replacing mutant genes with good genes
genetic diagnosis
diagnosis of the potential for disease development by analyzing disease-causing genes
genetic engineering
alteration of the genetic makeup of an organism
genetic map
outline of genes and their location on a chromosome
genetic marker
gene or sequence on a chromosome with a known location that is associated with a specific trait
genetic recombination
exchange of DNA between homologous pairs of chromosomes
genetic testing
process of testing for the presence of disease-causing genes
genetically modified organism (GMO)
organism whose genome has been artificially changed
genome annotation
process of attaching biological information to gene sequences
genome mapping
process of finding the location of genes on each chromosome
genomic library
collection of cloned DNA which represents all of the sequences and fragments from a genome
genomics
study of entire genomes including the complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their interactions within a species and with other species
host DNA
DNA that is present in the genome of the organism of interest
linkage analysis
procedure that analyzes the recombination of genes to determine if they are linked
lysis buffer
solution used to break the cell membrane and release cell contents
metabolome
complete set of metabolites which are related to the genetic makeup of an organism
metabolomics
study of small molecule metabolites found in an organism
metagenomics
study of the collective genomes of multiple species that grow and interact in an environmental niche
microsatellite polymorphism
variation between individuals in the sequence and number of repeats of microsatellite DNA
model organism
species that is studied and used as a model to understand the biological processes in other species represented by the model organism
molecular cloning
cloning of DNA fragments
multiple cloning site (MCS)
site that can be recognized by multiple restriction endonucleases
next-generation sequencing
group of automated techniques used for rapid DNA sequencing
northern blotting
transfer of RNA from a gel to a nylon membrane
pharmacogenomics
study of drug interactions with the genome or proteome; also called toxicogenomics
physical map
representation of the physical distance between genes or genetic markers
polygenic
phenotypic characteristic caused by two or more genes
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
technique used to amplify DNA
probe
small DNA fragment used to determine if the complementary sequence is present in a DNA sample
protease
enzyme that breaks down proteins
protein signature
set of uniquely expressed proteins in the diseased state
proteome
entire set of proteins produced by a cell type
proteomics
study of the function of proteomes
pure culture
growth of a single type of cell in the laboratory
radiation hybrid mapping
information obtained by fragmenting the chromosome with x-rays
recombinant DNA
combination of DNA fragments generated by molecular cloning that does not exist in nature; also known as a chimeric molecule
recombinant protein
protein product of a gene derived by molecular cloning
reproductive cloning
cloning of entire organisms
restriction endonuclease
enzyme that can recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences
restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
variation between individuals in the length of DNA fragments generated by restriction endonucleases
reverse genetics
method of determining the function of a gene by starting with the gene itself instead of starting with the gene product
reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)
PCR technique that involves converting RNA to DNA by reverse transcriptase
ribonuclease
enzyme that breaks down RNA
sequence mapping
mapping information obtained after DNA sequencing
shotgun sequencing
method used to sequence multiple DNA fragments to generate the sequence of a large piece of DNA
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
variation between individuals in a single nucleotide
Southern blotting
transfer of DNA from a gel to a nylon membrane
systems biology
study of whole biological systems (genomes and proteomes) based on interactions within the system
Ti plasmid
plasmid system derived from Agrobacterium tumifaciens that has been used by scientists to introduce foreign DNA into plant cells
transgenic
organism that receives DNA from a different species
variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs)
variation in the number of tandem repeats between individuals in the population
whole-genome sequencing
process that determines the DNA sequence of an entire genome