An ecologist is planning to measure both the size and density of a population. Identify the experimental method that can best provide these data.
- mark and recapture
- mark and release
- life table
Which of the following statements can be made about the mark and recapture method of counting population numbers?
- Using quadrats for counting individuals in a population increases the accuracy of the mark and recapture method.
- The greater the number of individuals captured during the first round of mark and recapture, the greater is the overall population size.
- The mark and recapture method is useful for mammals and birds, but of little use for other organisms.
- An underestimate of population size would tend to be observed in cases of studies involving animals that learn to seek out bait.
Which type of dispersal pattern is characterized by even spacing between individuals in the population?
Identify the best method to show the life expectancy of an individual within a population.
- mark and recapture
- mark and release
- life table
Describe how a researcher would best collect data in order to calculate mortality rates within a population.
- For various age groups, count the number of individuals that died and the number that survived within a defined time period.
- For various age groups, count the number of individuals that were born and the number that died within a defined time period.
- For each sex, count the number of individuals that were born and the number that survived within a defined time period.
- For each sex, count the number of individuals that died and the number that were born within a defined time period.
What survivorship pattern can be used to describe humans?
- by a type I survivorship curve
- by a type II survivorship curve
- by a type III survivorship curve
- by a type IV survivorship curve
Different species have different survival curves. A Type III survival curve would most likely be observed for _____.
- polar bears
Which of the following is associated with long-term parental care?
- few offspring
- many offspring
Which of the following conditions is inversely related with fecundity?
- number of offspring
- energy budget of parent
- amount of parental care
- age of parent
When studying a squash beetle native to the Everglades, scientists collected data to compare the squash beetle to another beetle native to the Great Lakes region. What data would be used to compare the beetles’ reproductive potential?
- few offspring
- many offspring
Albatrosses are birds that can live to age 60 and older. They usually do not start breeding until they reach age 8 or 9, which is relatively late compared to other bird species. Based on this information, explain conditions that might be a risk to the survival of albatrosses.
- increased chance of individuals dying before reproducing
- decreased life spans of individuals
- increased chance of offspring dying
- decreased chances of mating between individuals
Frogs are animals with high fecundity. Based on this information, frogs should also have which of the following characteristics?
- high energy budget
- extensive energy storage for offspring
- small numbers of offspring
- little or no parental care
Species with limited resources usually exhibit a(n) ____ growth curve.
Give an example of exponential population growth.
- salamanders adapting to fungal infections
- polar bears living in a warming habitat
- bacteria growing in enriched medium in a lab
- feral cats being trapped and neutered in a suburb
If the major food source of seals declines due to pollution or overfishing, how would the seal population be affected?
- The carrying capacity of seals would decrease, as would the seal population.
- The carrying capacity of seals would decrease, but the seal population would remain the same.
- The number of seal deaths would increase but the number of births would also increase, so the population size would remain the same.
- The carrying capacity of seals would remain the same, but the population of seals would decrease.
Define carrying capacity of a population and explain whether it changes or remains fixed for a population.
- Carrying capacity is the amount of land needed to support a population, and it is fixed for each population.
- Carrying capacity is the amount of water and food resources required to support a population and it is fixed for each population.
- Carrying capacity is the maximum size of a population that can survive using the available resources and it can vary up or down.
- Carrying capacity is the time needed for a population to reach its maximum size and it can vary up or down.
Suppose a pesticide used by farmers wipes out the insect population that feeds a population of bats. Predict the effects of this change on the bat population.
- The carrying capacity of the population will increase.
- The carrying capacity of the population will decrease.
- The carrying capacity of the population will not change.
- The carrying capacity of the population cannot be predicted.
Which explanation best defines density-dependent growth regulation?
- a factor that affects population density but not population size
- a factor that affects population size but not population density
- a factor that affects population size regardless of population density
- a factor that affects population size in ways related to population density
A forest fire is an example of ____ regulation.
Species that have many offspring at one time are usually _______.
- both r- and K-selected
- not selected
The following statements compare r-selected and K-selected species. Identify the statement that makes an accurate comparison.
- r-selected and K-selected species both have limitations in the amount of energy they can invest in reproduction, so they both use similar strategies.
- r-selected and K-selected species both have limitations in the amount of energy they can invest in reproduction, but they use completely different strategies.
- r-selected and K-selected species use similar reproductive strategies but r-selected species require less energy to reproduce than K-selected species.
- r-selected and K-selected species use different reproductive strategies because r-selected species require less energy to reproduce than K-selected species.
If a population moves to a new environment rich in resources, what type of growth curve will it exhibit?
Humans have altered environmental factors that have allowed the human population to grow exponentially. State an example of such a factor.
- interspecific competition
- age structure
- carrying capacity
- reproductive strategies
Humans have altered their own carrying capacity. Explain how humans have changed their carrying capacity and the consequences of this change.
- By limiting their own carrying capacity, humans have enabled their population to grow rapidly.
- By decreasing their own carrying capacity, humans have enabled their population to grow slowly.
- By stabilizing their own carrying capacity, humans have enabled their population to grow steadily.
- By increasing their own carrying capacity, humans have enabled their population to grow exponentially.
Humans have influenced their own carrying capacity in several ways. Some human activities increase carrying capacity while others decrease it. Identify a human activity that has decreased the human carrying capacity of the environment.
- using large amounts of natural resources
- domestication of animals
- use of language
Humans began developing oil as an energy source in the early part of the twentieth century. Explain the relationship between this development and the human carrying capacity of Earth.
- Drilling for oil enabled humans to increase food production through the use of machinery, which increased the human carrying capacity of the Earth.
- Oil production allowed new transportation methods faster than methods using animals, which decreased the human carrying capacity of the Earth.
- Accessing oil as an energy source created increased greenhouse gas emissions, which increased the human carrying capacity of the Earth.
- Oil as an energy source enabled humans to enjoy more recreational activities, which decreased the human carrying capacity of the Earth.
The greatest proportion of young individuals can be found in ___.
- economically developed countries
- economically underdeveloped countries
- countries with zero population growth
- countries in Europe
Explain the correlation between age structure and the level of economic development observed in many countries.
- There is no correlation between the characteristics of age structures and the level of economic development.
- Countries that are more economically developed tend to have fewer middle-aged individuals and more young individuals than undeveloped countries.
- A larger ratio of very young individuals to very old individuals characterizes the age structures of countries with the highest economic development.
- Age structures of economically undeveloped countries show greater proportions of children and fewer proportions of elderly people.
Which environmental characteristic is likely to increase if the human population continues growing unchecked?
- wilderness areas
- fresh water supplies
- fossil fuel reserves
- atmospheric carbon dioxide
Predict and explain the effects of human population on biodiversity many years in the future.
- Biodiversity will decline as human population increases because of habitat loss, increased pollution, and climate change.
- Biodiversity will decline as human population increases because of enhanced food supplies, medical advances, and development of renewable energy sources.
- Biodiversity will increase as human population increases because of habitat loss, increased pollution, and climate change.
- Biodiversity will increase as human population increases because of enhanced food supplies, medical advances, and development of renewable energy sources.
Analyze the predator-prey graphs to identify the graph that correctly depicts a predator-prey cycle.
Construct a statement to describe a predator-prey cycle.
- Prey increase in numbers, causing an increase in the predator population, which, in turn, causes a downturn in prey numbers, and leads to a downturn in predator numbers, and then the cycle repeats.
- The number of prey is directly related to the number of predators so that the two populations remain at the same ratio even though the total population numbers fluctuate.
- Increasing prey numbers trigger decreases in predator numbers, which eventually causes a decrease in prey numbers as predators become too sparse, and then the cycle repeats.
- A prey population undergoes a cyclic increasing and decreasing fluctuation in size as its predator population undergoes the same cycle but in a mirror image relationship.
In a region in Texas, biologists observed that two highly venomous snakes with similar markings deter owl predators. Upon closer inspection, the snakes were determined to belong to different genera and species. How would these biologists describe the mimicry in this case?
- Batesian mimicry, because it involves nontoxic species that resembles a toxic species.
- Emsleyan/Mertensian mimicry because an extremely toxic species resembles a less toxic species.
- Batesian mimicry because it involves an extremely toxic species that resembles a less toxic species.
- Mullerian mimicry because it involves different species that both produce toxins and display similar warning coloration.
Explain what would happen to an animal species classified as a Batesian mimic if it did not have its mimicry attributes.
- The animal species would suffer increased loss through predation because its predators would not learn to avoid eating it.
- The animal species would suffer decreased loss through predation because it still produces harmful toxins that would kill its predators.
- The animal species would suffer no long-term loss through predation because it still produces foul tasting compounds that its predators would learn to avoid.
- The animal species would suffer increased loss through predation because predators would not be deterred by its appearance and would find it to be tasty.
Explain how two different species can coexist in the same habitat according to the competitive exclusion principle.
- Two species can coexist in the same habitat as long as they do not share the same trophic level.
- Two species can coexist in the same habitat as long as they do not share the same mates.
- Two species can coexist in the same habitat as long as they do not share the same resources.
- Two species can coexist in the same habitat as long as they do not share the same life span.
Explain what would happen if the competitive exclusion principle were violated.
- One species will prey on another species and drive it to extinction.
- One species will adapt to another species invading its habitat.
- One species will block another species’ access to a critical resource.
- One species will contend with another species for the same resources.
Describe the symbiotic relationship of mutualism.
- Only one species benefits and the other derives no benefit or harm from the relationship.
- One species benefits and the other is harmed by the relationship.
- Both species benefit from the relationship.
- Neither species benefits nor is either species harmed.
Construct a sentence that describes the symbiotic relationships of mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
- Symbiotic relationships always benefit both species involved.
- Symbiotic relationships never harm either of the species involved.
- Symbiotic relationships always benefit at least one of the species involved.
- Symbiotic relationships always harm at least one of the species involved.
Identify the statement that best describes a pioneer species.
- A pioneer species is a species that is transported out of its native habitat into a non-native habitat, where there are few or no natural predators to keep the population in check.
- A pioneer species is a species that maintains the community structure in an ecosystem, and whose loss causes the ecosystem to fail.
- A pioneer species is a species that has the greatest influence over the ecosystem usually by bringing most of the energy into the system.
- A pioneer species is a species that can colonize landscapes that are devoid of soil and begin the process of succession.
Explain what happens to a forest community after a forest fire.
- The same community is quickly re-established just as it existed before the disturbance.
- Another mature community with different species grows quickly in place of the original community.
- Groups of species grow and then are replaced by other groups through a sequential series of changes as the community matures over time.
- The landscape remains barren for many years until trees grow large enough to provide the shade needed for smaller plants to grow.
What is innate behavior?
- Innate behavior results from practice and conditioning.
- Innate behavior occurs spontaneously without any learning component.
- Innate behavior results from thought processes.
- Innate behavior results from interactions within a social group.
What is the difference between innate and learned behaviors?
- Innate behaviors can change based on previous experiences, whereas learned behaviors remain the same throughout an organism’s life.
- Innate behaviors are controlled by genes, whereas genes play no role in learned behaviors.
- Innate behaviors allow an organism to adapt to new situations by applying previous experiences, whereas learned behaviors allow an organism to respond quickly.
- Innate behaviors are involuntary responses to stimuli, whereas learned behaviors change based on an organism’s experiences.
- Phototaxis is the directed movement of an organism in response to gravity.
- Phototaxis is the long-range movement of an organism in response to a change in season.
- Phototaxis is the movement of an organism in search of food.
- Phototaxis is the directed movement of an organism in response to light.
Monarch butterflies in the eastern regions of North America migrate thousands of miles to an area in Mexico in the fall and then back to northern regions in the spring. Explain how this migration behavior came to be established in this species.
- Each new generation learned the migration behavior by observing older generations and mimicking their behavior patterns.
- In very early generations of this species, a few individuals found that migration improved their chances for survival and taught their young to carry on the behavior.
- Individuals that migrated survived through the winter, whereas individuals that did not migrate died, leading to selection for migration in later generations.
- When this butterfly emerged as a new species, by chance it inherited the genetic material that underlies long-distance migration behavior from its ancestor.
Pheromones are used in communication between some organisms. What is a pheromone?
- A pheromone is a type of chemical compound.
- A pheromone is a type of display.
- A pheromone is a type of language.
- A pheromone is a type of song.
Construct a statement to describe the type of signal used by birds to communicate the presence of a predator to other birds.
- Birds release chemical compounds into the air that other birds rapidly recognize as signals of the presence of a predator.
- Birds flash visual signals such as wing flapping to communicate warnings to other birds whenever a predator is present.
- Birds physically touch other birds using tactile signals when they observe a predator entering their location.
- Birds make aural signals such as calls that other birds can hear and learn about a predator that has been observed in the area.
The sacrifice of the life of an individual so that the genes of relatives may be passed on is called ____.
- operant conditioning
- kin selection
Cite an example that describes how an animal expends energy in finding, selecting, or winning a mate.
- Female swallows engage in aggressive harassment of a hawk during breeding season.
- Male cardinals harass and peck at other male cardinals in their territory.
- Both male and female squirrels build nests out of leaves, twigs, and other plant material.
- Female black widow spiders eat males following copulation.
The term polyandry comes from the Greek words for ‘many’ and ‘man.’ Based on these word origins, describe a polyandrous mating system.
- One male mates with many females.
- One female mates with one male.
- One female mates with many males.
- Many females mate with one male.
Describe an advantage of a monogamous relationship.
- Having a lot of males around to provide assistance with protecting and feeding offspring ensures that offspring have the best chance of surviving.
- When very few males are available in a population, this mating system makes sure that each male has a mating partner.
- In populations where very few females are available, this mating system ensures that no eggs are wasted.
- The constant presence of one male throughout the offspring rearing process makes it more likely that offspring will survive and be healthier.
The ability of rats to learn how to run a maze is an example of cognitive learning. Describe what happens during cognitive learning.
- Cognitive learning is a type of learning that occurs early in an animal’s development when it learns to bond to an object or animal.
- Cognitive learning occurs when an animal learns to associate a stimulus with a behavior not normally associated with that stimulus.
- Cognitive learning occurs when an animal learns a behavior in response to a positive stimulus or negative stimulus.
- Cognitive learning is the most complex type of learning that involves multiple types of brain processes to carry out.
Contrast classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
- In operant conditioning, the animal learns to associate a voluntary behavior with its consequences, whereas in classical conditioning, the animal learns to associate a non-voluntary behavior with an unusual stimulus.
- In operant conditioning, the animal does not learn a new behavior in response to a stimulus, whereas in classical conditioning, the animal learns to associate a non-voluntary behavior with an unusual stimulus.
- In operant conditioning, the animal learns to associate a voluntary behavior with its consequences, whereas in classical conditioning, the animal does not learn a new behavior in response to a stimulus.
- In operant conditioning, the animal learns to associate a non-voluntary behavior with an unusual stimulus, whereas in classical conditioning, the animal learns to associate a voluntary behavior with its consequences.