58
The Karner blue butterfly has been declared an endangered species. It is dependent on wild lupine for larval development. The butterfly species, which was found abundantly in Indiana Dunes National Park, is now found further North in Wisconsin and Michigan. Wild lupine has been destroyed in areas where it grew abundantly because of development and construction in the open grasslands where it prefers to grow. Which of the following biotic factors are present in the community?
  1. Karner blue butterfly
  2. Karner blue butterfly and wild lupine
  3. Karner blue butterfly, wild lupine, and fire
  4. Karner blue butterfly, wild lupine, and grasslands
59
In a temperate grassland system area of North America, vegetation has been destroyed by fire. What will happen to the net primary productivity and the local ecosystem when rains return in the next season?
  1. The grasses will grow back, but the herbivores that lived there will not return, as they would have found new land to live on. Therefore, the net primary productivity would decrease.
  2. The grasses will not grow back, therefore the herbivores that lived there will not return. Thus, the net primary productivity would decrease.
  3. The grasses will grow back and the herbivores that lived there will return. The net primary productivity should also be similar to the previous season.
  4. The grasses will grow back and the herbivores that lived there will return. The net primary productivity would be less than the previous season.
60
The Karner blue butterfly larva secretes a carbohydrate, which is a source of energy for ants. In turn, ants tend to the larva, increasing its likelihood to grow into an adult butterfly. This is an example of _____.
  1. predation
  2. competition
  3. mutualism
  4. parasitism
61
A lake in the Midwest witnesses a sudden increase in the algae population (algae bloom) that covers the lake. The factors that affect net primary productivity are __.
  1. Light and nutrient availability
  2. predation by primary consumers
  3. pollution
  4. carbon d oxide
62
Paleontologists have discovered bodies of humans and animals in bogs that have been there for hundreds of years in a perfectly preserved state. Explain the reason for this.
  1. Bogs have high oxygen content and organic acids, which lowers the pH. Low pH and high oxygen content prevents oxidation thus, slowing down decomposition.
  2. Bogs have low oxygen content and organic acids, which increases the pH. High pH and low oxygen content prevents oxidation thus, slowing down decomposition.
  3. Bogs have low oxygen content and organic acids, which lowers the pH. Low pH and low oxygen content prevent oxidation, thus slowing down decomposition.
  4. Bogs have low oxygen content and organic acids, which lowers the pH. Low pH and low oxygen content prevents reduction, thus slowing down decomposition.
63
You are asked to estimate the nutrient content of a lake and its possible effect on net primary productivity. What data will you collect to determine the effect?
  1. Sample water from different parts of the lake and determine nutrient composition
  2. Sample the carbon content of the phytoplankton growing
  3. Take sample of lake water and artificially enrich it, then see the effect of the enrichment on phytoplankton growth compared with growth in unenriched lake water
  4. Wait for spring turnover to check for nutrients found in the ocean floor
64
The population of a certain species of deer has been reduced drastically because of indiscriminate hunting. How will you determine its impact on the local ecosystem?
  1. To determine the effect of indiscriminate hunting on local ecosystem, environmental conditions should be determined. If a drastic change in environmental conditions is observed then, indiscriminate hunting of deer should be discouraged.
  2. The number of predators, their effect on plants they feed on, availability of nutrients in soil, and number of pests should be determined. If there is a drastic change in numbers, then indiscriminate hunting of deer should be discouraged.
  3. Determining the number of predators alone is sufficient to determine the impact of indiscriminate hunting on local ecosystem. If there is a drastic change in numbers, then indiscriminate hunting of deer should be discouraged.
  4. Determination of the availability of nutrients in soil helps in determining the impact of indiscriminate hunting on local ecosystem. If there is a drastic change in the availability, then indiscriminate hunting of deer should be discouraged.
65
In a forest fire, many oak trees were destroyed. After the fire, numerous taller trees replaced the oak trees. What is the best explanation of this event?
  1. The tall trees grow faster and create a canopy, which did not allow oak trees to grow.
  2. The burning of the trees changed the pH of the soil, which did not allow oak to grow.
  3. Roots of shrubs and trees proliferate, taking over the place of the oak trees.
  4. Oak trees succumb to pests, thus other pest resistant trees are able to proliferate.
66
What are possible consequences if there is a big oil spill in the middle of the ocean? How will it affect the biodiversity and the net primary productivity? What are some strategies to clean up this oil spill?
  1. Oil spills increase the amount of light and oxygen entering the ocean. The phytoplanktons may perish. Presence of oil would limit mobility of marine animals and may result in death. Some chemicals and bioremediation can help oil clean up.
  2. Oil spills increase the amount of light and oxygen entering the ocean. The phytoplanktons may increase. The mobility of marine animals increases. Biodiversity and, therefore, net primary productivity increases. Some chemicals and bioremediation can help oil clean up.
  3. Oil spills cover the surface of the ocean, reducing the amount of light entering the ocean. The marine organisms that can survive independent of light will not be affected. Some chemicals and bioremediation can help oil clean up.
  4. Oil spills cover the surface of the ocean, reducing the amount of light and oxygen entering the ocean. The phytoplankton may perish. Presence of oil would limit mobility of marine animals and may result in death. Some chemicals and bioremediation can help oil clean up.
67
Global climate change has led to butterflies emerging earlier and amphibians mating earlier in the United Kingdom. What impact is it most likely to have on their populations in the next few years?
  1. There will be no impact on butterfly and amphibian population.
  2. Their numbers will definitely decline with rising temperatures.
  3. Their numbers will decline as their plant hosts of butterflies may not flower earlier and young amphibians may not be viable as there might be a lack of water.
  4. It is hard to predict what will happen to their populations as there are no similar studies.
68
What are possible short-term and long-term effects of natural and human-induced processes on global climate change and, consequently, ecosystems?
  1. Short term changes include melting of glaciers, rise in levels of water bodies which may cover islands close to sea level, destroying the local ecosystem and animals, and so on. Long-term changes experienced could include changes in seasonal patterns, unseasonal rainfall, and changes in the life cycle of insects.
  2. Short term changes include changes in seasonal patterns, unseasonal rainfall, changes in the life cycle of insects and animals, and so on. Long-term changes could be change in flowering times of flowers, and the rise in levels of water bodies, which may cover islands close to sea level, destroying the local ecosystem.
  3. Short-term changes include changes in seasonal patterns,unseasonal rainfall, changes in the life cycle of insects and animals, and so on. Long-term changes could be melting of glaciers, and a rise in levels of water bodies which may cover islands close to sea level, destroying the local ecosystem.
  4. Short term changes include melting of glaciers, unseasonal rainfall, changes in the life cycle of insects and animals, etc. Long-term changes could be rise in levels of water bodies which may cover islands close to sea level, destroying the local ecosystem.