C, H, O, and N are nutrients that are cycled through the Earth in different forms. Which of the following levels of ecology will include the study of nutrient cycling though the environment?
  1. organismal ecology
  2. population ecology
  3. community ecology
  4. ecosystem ecology
Which of the following are arranged from least inclusive to most inclusive?
  1. population>ecosystem>community>biosphere
  2. ecosystem < population < biosphere < community
  3. biosphere < ecosystem < community < population
  4. population < community < ecosystem < biosphere
An ecologist is studying the patterns on the wings of an endangered butterfly species that allow it to escape predators such as birds. This is an example of __.
  1. mimicry
  2. organismal ecology
  3. mutualism
  4. community ecology
Each year, Lake Michigan beach visitors are warned of possible E.coli, which can cause illness. In order to understand how environmental conditions, both biotic and abiotic, affect E. coli risk, which type of individual should an infectious disease specialist collaborate with?
  1. an ecosystem ecologist
  2. a podiatrist
  3. a community ecologist
  4. a population ecologist
Some bacterial species can use nitrogen directly from the atmosphere. In this situation, the bacteria are a _____.
  1. biotic factor
  2. abiotic factor
  3. predator
  4. symbiotic partner
Photosynthetic organisms are important to most ecosystems because they_____.
  1. synthesize organic compounds they obtain from decaying heterotrophs.
  2. can use carbon dioxide and sunlight and synthesize their own food.
  3. use wind energy to synthesize organic compounds.
  4. synthesize inorganic compounds from organic compounds.
The study of population ecology focuses on ___.
  1. The number of individuals of one species in an area and how and why that number changes over time.
  2. The processes driving interactions within and among different species within an area.
  3. The adaptations that enable individuals to live in specific habitats.
  4. Plants and animals living in an enclosed area
The study of the effect of abiotic factors such as rain and temperature on the distribution of living organisms is known as ___.
  1. community ecology
  2. biogeography
  3. ecosystem
  4. geography
Many species of pine trees are found in different geographical locations in North America and Canada. This is because _____.
  1. they were not separated geographically over millions of years and did not evolve to be different species.
  2. plant breeders carried seeds to different areas.
  3. pollen from pollen tree was able to travel far.
  4. pine was present widely and in some areas they dried out.
An ecologist hiking up a mountain may notice different biomes along the way due to changes in all of the following EXCEPT _____.
  1. elevation
  2. rainfall
  3. latitude
  4. temperature
Temperate forests have plants of varying sizes. Understory plants in a temperate forest have adaptations to capture limited ____.
  1. water
  2. nutrients
  3. heat
  4. sunlight
In which of the following bodies of water does temperature stratification not take place?
  1. estuaries
  2. lakes
  3. seas
  4. oceans
Plants living in deserts have adaptations such as hair on leaves and a thick cuticle. What purpose do these adaptations serve?
  1. to conserve water
  2. to prevent exposure to sunlight
  3. to increase oxygen intake
  4. to decrease carbon dioxide intake
Which of the following biomes would have maximum net primary production?
  1. deciduous forests
  2. deserts
  3. arctic tundra
  4. savannas
When the Net Primary Productivity was measured in the presented graph, what was included in those measurements?Bar graph titled “Net Primary Productivity of Selected Ecosystems (g/m2/year – amount of photosynthesis).” The y-axis ranges from 0 to 2500. The desert bar reaches 200. The boreal forest reaches 500. The cold deciduous forest reaches 1000. The tropical rain forest reaches 2000. The freshwater wetland bar is slightly higher than the tropical rainforest. The saltwater wetland bar is at 2250. The warm temperature mixed forest bar reaches 1000. The cultivated land reaches 750 and the grassland is slightly over 500.
 The figure shows various terrestrial biomes. Which of the following statements is true regarding net primary productivity in terrestrial biomes?
  1. Above and underground biomass are included in net primary productivity.
  2. Net primary productivity is the total amount of carbon fixed.
  3. Net primary productivity is the amount of carbon fixed minus the amount used during cellular respiration and includes only the aboveground biomass in terrestrial biomes.
  4. Net primary productivity refers to the amount of total amount of carbon fixed.
Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of living things and the _____ that affect their distribution.
  1. Abiotic factors
  2. Biotic factors
  3. Biomes
  4. Conspecifics
In which of the biomes are plants unable to grow because the soil is frozen most of the year?
  1. arctic tundra
  2. boreal forests
  3. grasslands
  4. chapparals
In grasslands, forest fires are a common occurrence. Which of the following statements regarding grasslands is true?
  1. They have the ability to withstand fires.
  2. They have a well-developed root system, which allows them to regrow after a fire.
  3. Grasses are tall and only their top portions are destroyed.
  4. Trees shield some of the grass thus protecting it from fire.
Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees. Which statement is correct about savannas?
  1. They receive abundant rainfall.
  2. The temperatures are cold throughout the year.
  3. They have relatively long dry seasons.
  4. Savannas are dominated by fluctuations in temperature.
The boreal forest, also known as taiga or coniferous forest, is found south of the Arctic Circle and across most of Canada, Alaska, Russia, and northern Europe. What are the characteristics of the boreal forest?
  1. high temperature
  2. deciduous trees
  3. high humidity
  4. acidic soil
The amount of sunlight and rainfall affects the growing season of plants in different biomes Which of the following biomes is characterized by short growing seasons?
  1. savanna
  2. temperate grasslands
  3. arctic tundra
  4. tropical wet forest
The figure shows different zones present in the ocean. Which of the following statements about marine biomes is true?The illustration divides the ocean into different zones based on depth. The top layer, called the photic zone, extends from the surface to 200 m. The aphotic zone extends from 200 to 4,000 m. They abyssal zone extends from 4,000 m to the ocean bottom. The ocean is also divided into zones based on distance from the shore. The intertidal zone extends from high to low tide. The neritic zone extends from the intertidal zone to the point at which ocean depth is about 200 m. At about this depth, the continental shelf ends in a steep slope to the ocean bottom. The oceanic zone is the area of open ocean. A thin section of the oceanic zone extending from top to bottom and adjacent to the continental shelf is labeled the benthic realm. All of the ocean’s open water is referred to as the pelagic realm, which is labeled on the left.
  1. The benthic zone includes the ocean’s open water and shore.
  2. The pelagic realm includes all of the ocean’s open water.
  3. The majority of the ocean includes the photic zone.
  4. The deepest zone of the ocean is known as the aphotic zone.
Corals have a mutualistic relationship with photosynthetic algae in the photic zones of water. What purpose does this serve?
  1. Corals are able to derive their nutrition from the algae and thus survive in the nutritionally poor water.
  2. Corals are able to accumulate calcium carbonate from the algae.
  3. They can form coral reefs because of this association.
  4. The corals provide protection to the algae.
Which of the following abiotic factors is most important for sustaining life in marine biomes?
  1. wind
  2. soil
  3. salt
  4. warmth
There are several different marine zones. In which zone are organisms exposed to air and sunlight at low tide and are underwater most of the time, especially during high tide?
  1. intertidal zone
  2. neritic
  3. oceanic
  4. abyssal
Which of the following photosynthetic organisms are more likely to grow in a lake as opposed to a river?
  1. fungi
  2. phytoplankton
  3. moss
  4. lichens
Water flow can vary in wetlands. Freshwater marshes and swamps are characterized by _____.
  1. dry soil
  2. rapid water flow
  3. slow water flow
  4. irregular water flow
Water bodies can differ in the amount of salt present. Which of the following is a characteristic of an estuary?
  1. a continuous body of water with high salinity
  2. an area where the salinity varies
  3. a body of water with low salinity
  4. a body of water with low salt entering land
The earth’s geological past has witnessed many important events. Which of the following periods was associated with global warming?
  1. Permian period
  2. Cambrian period
  3. 2nd and 3rd century BC
  4. 20th century
One of the indirect consequences of global warming has been ___.
  1. loss of biodiversity
  2. increase in temperature
  3. change in water quality
  4. increase in temperature tolerance of plants
Which one of the following fuels was used extensively during the Industrial Revolution, leading to increases in levels of carbon dioxide?
  1. coal
  2. petroleum
  3. natural gas
  4. solar energy
Global warming is due to many factors. Which of the following is known to change with CO2 concentration?
  1. solar intensity
  2. wind intensity
  3. temperature
  4. humidity
All of the following are natural factors have led to slow increases in global temperatures except____.
  1. volcanic eruptions
  2. change in solar intensity
  3. earthquakes
  4. changes in the earth’s orbit
Global temperatures have been steadily increasing since the Industrial Revolution largely as a result of ___.
  1. agricultural production
  2. burning of fossil fuels
  3. increase in movement of people
  4. use of pesticides
Which of the following gases is not considered a significant contributor to global warming?
  1. carbon dioxide
  2. methane
  3. nitric oxide
  4. oxygen
Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are considered greenhouse gases because___.
  1. They trap solar radiation released from the sun as it reaches the Earth’s surface, similar to the glass in a greenhouse.
  2. They are found mostly in green houses.
  3. These gases are essential for plant growth in a green house.
  4. They trap solar radiation, which is converted into thermal radiation on the Earth’s surface of which some is reradiated back into the atmosphere.
The Medieval Climate Anomaly occurred between 900 and 1300 AD. Temperatures during this time were between 0.10 and 0.20 higher. This allowed _____.
  1. the Vikings to colonize Greenland
  2. large amounts of new technologies to be invented
  3. advances in agriculture
  4. harsh winters