37
Which statement explains how the two types of sensory transduction differ?
  1. Receptors can respond to multiple stimuli, whereas free nerve endings are specialized cells that detect a specific stimulus.
  2. Receptors are specialized cells that detect a specific stimulus, whereas free nerve endings can respond to multiple stimuli.
  3. Receptors are similar for different stimuli, whereas free nerve endings are different for different stimuli.
  4. Receptors are specialized cells that detect a specific stimulus, whereas free nerve endings can respond to pressure.
38
Describe how the steps of sensory perception would be affected if a person sustains damage to axons that lead from sensory receptors to the central nervous system.
  1. Reception would not be affected. However, signal transduction and perception will be incomplete.
  2. Perception would not be affected. However, signal transduction and reception will be incomplete.
  3. Signal transduction would not be affected. However, reception and perception will be incomplete.
  4. Reception and signal transduction would not be affected. However, perception will be incomplete.
39
Give an example of how Weber’s law is applicable to a just-noticeable difference.
  1. A difference between 20 and 21 units of weight is more likely detectable than a difference between 1 and 2 units.
  2. A difference between 1 and 2 units of weight is more likely detectable than a difference between 20 and 21 units.
  3. A difference between 1 and 2 units of weight is more likely detectable than a difference between 2 and 4 units.
  4. A difference between 20 and 21 units of weight is more likely detectable than a difference between 2 and 4 units.
40
Humans have both special and general senses. Which statement explains what both types of senses have in common?
  1. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into a chemical signal via the central nervous system.
  2. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into an electrical signal via the peripheral nervous system.
  3. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into a chemical signal via the nervous system.
  4. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into an electrical signal via the nervous system.
41
Explain why there are more Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles in your fingertips than in your palms.
  1. These two types of thermoreceptors are used to detect warmth and cold which is necessary to maintain body temperature.
  2. These two types of mechanoreceptors are used to detect fine details necessary for many roles of fingertips but not palms such as typing.
  3. These two types of proprioceptors are used to detect fine details necessary for many roles of fingertips but not palms, such as typing.
  4. These two types of mechanoreceptors are used to detect fine details, which are necessary for many roles of fingertips as well as palms.
42
Explain what can be inferred about the relative sizes of the areas of cortex that process signals from skin not densely innervated with sensory receptors versus skin that is densely innervated with sensory receptors.
  1. Areas of the cortex that process signals from skin with fewer sensory receptors are likely to be larger than those having large numbers of sensory receptors.
  2. Areas of the cortex that process signals from skin with fewer sensory receptors are likely to be smaller than those having large numbers of sensory receptors.
  3. Areas of the cortex that process signals from skin with fewer sensory receptors and large numbers of sensory receptors will likely be the same.
  4. There is no relationship between the relative sizes of areas of cortex that process signals from skin and the sensory receptor numbers.
43
Explain why some people think that peppers are painful or hot, while other people do not find peppers painful or hot.
  1. Peppers contain capsaicin, which opens the same sodium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
  2. Peppers contain capsaicin, which opens the same calcium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
  3. Peppers contain quinine, which opens the same calcium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
  4. Peppers contain quinine, which opens the same sodium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
44
Discuss how the location of mechanoreceptors affect their ability to sense different stimuli.
  1. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found in specialized regions and detect the amount of stretch. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure.
  2. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found deeper in the skin and are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to better detect fine touch.
  3. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found deeper in the skin and detect fine touch. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure.
  4. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found in more upper parts of the skin and detect fine touch. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure.
45
Explain what happens to the ability to perceive taste and smell as people age.
  1. All senses decline with age, most dramatically by age 50 and then continue to decline thereafter.
  2. All senses increase with age, most dramatically by age 50 and then continue to increase thereafter.
  3. All senses decline with age, most dramatically by age 50 and then increase thereafter.
  4. All senses increase with age, most dramatically by age 50 and then decline thereafter.
46
Predict a possible effect on an animal of not being able to perceive taste.
  1. The animal might not be able to eat food.
  2. The animal might not be able to eat sweet and unspoiled food.
  3. The animal might not be able to distinguish food that is bitter and sour.
  4. The animal might not be able to distinguish food that is dangerous, bitter, spoiled, sour or sweet.
47
If a young child goes missing, predict why a bloodhound and not a poodle would be used to find the child.
  1. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have fewer olfactory receptors and larger olfactory epithelia.
  2. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have more olfactory receptors and larger olfactory epithelia.
  3. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have more olfactory receptors and smaller olfactory epithelia.
  4. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have more olfactory bulbs and larger olfactory receptors.
48
Explain how pheromones differ from other odorants, from the perspective of the recipient of the signal.
  1. Pheromones are sent to the main olfactory bulb instead of the amygdala and are not consciously perceived.
  2. Pheromones are sent to the amygdala instead of the main olfactory bulb and are consciously perceived.
  3. Pheromones are sent to the amygdala instead of the main olfactory bulb and are not consciously perceived.
  4. Pheromones are sent to the main olfactory bulb instead of the amygdala and are consciously perceived.
49
You are sitting with a dog and a cat and decide to test a 50,000 Hz ringtone. Identify which of you is likely to respond to the sound and explain why.
  1. The human and dog will respond, because they can hear up to 50,000 Hz.
  2. The cat and dog will respond, because they can hear up to 50,000 Hz.
  3. Only the dog will respond, because they can hear up to 50,000 Hz.
  4. Only the cat will respond, because cats can hear up to 50,000 Hz.
50
You are having a debate with someone in a library. A librarian asks you to “speak softer.” What characteristic of sound does the librarian want you to change and how can you change it?
  1. wavelength, by lowering the amplitude at which you are speaking
  2. amplitude, by lowering the frequency at which you are speaking
  3. frequency, by lowering the volume at which you are speaking
  4. amplitude, by lowering the volume at which you are speaking.
51
If an individual was born without the malleus in either ear, explain why they might have problems with hearing.
  1. Without the malleus and incus, the vibrations of the tympanum would not be able to reach the stapes and then be sent to the cochlea.
  2. Without the malleus and incus, the vibrations of the pinna would not be able to reach the stapes and then be sent to the cochlea.
  3. Without the malleus and incus, sound waves would not be collected by the tympanum.
  4. Without the malleus and incus, sound waves would not be collected by the pinna.
52
Explain how being on the moon, which has less gravity than Earth, might affect vestibular sensation and why.
  1. Vestibular sensation relies on gravity’s effects on tiny crystals in the inner nostril; therefore, reduced gravity on the moon would likely impair vestibular sensation.
  2. Vestibular sensation relies on gravity’s effects on huge crystals in the inner ear; therefore, reduced gravity on the moon would likely impair vestibular sensation.
  3. Vestibular sensation relies on gravity’s effects on tiny crystals in the inner ear; therefore, reduced gravity on the moon would likely impair vestibular sensation.
  4. Vestibular sensation relies on gravity’s effects on tiny crystals in the outer ear; therefore, reduced gravity on the moon would likely impair vestibular sensation.
53
Explain why you are unable to see the heat emitted by a cricket.
  1. Ultraviolet light includes heat emitted by prey organisms of reptiles which is outside the visual spectrum for humans because the wavelength is less than 380 nm.
  2. Infrared light includes heat emitted by prey organisms of reptiles which is outside the visual spectrum for humans because the wavelength is less than 380 nm.
  3. Infrared light includes heat emitted by prey organisms of reptiles, which is outside the visual spectrum for humans because the wavelength is more than 400 nm.
  4. Ultraviolet light includes heat emitted by prey organisms of reptiles, which is outside the visual spectrum for humans because the wavelength is more than 400 nm.
54
Explain what the color receptors in your eyes are perceiving if you see a white building.
  1. All of the color receptors in your eyes are equally stimulated when you see the color white.
  2. Both L and M cones are equally stimulated in your eyes when you see the color white.
  3. Only the S cones are stimulated in your eyes when you see the color white.
  4. L cones are stimulated strongly and S cones are weakly stimulated when you see the color white.
55
Discuss how the relationship between photoreceptors and bipolar cells is different from other sensory receptors and adjacent cells.
  1. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are depolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically remain polarized.
  2. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are hyperpolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically remain polarized.
  3. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are depolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically become hyperpolarized.
  4. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are hyperpolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically become depolarized.
56
Explain what happens once visual signals reach the visual cortex.
  1. Some signals go to the temporal lobe, which detects “where” information, and other signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” and “what” signals.
  2. Some signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” information, and other signals go to the temporal lobe, which detects “what” signals.
  3. Some signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” and “what” information and other signals go to the temporal lobe, which also detects “where” and “what” signals.
  4. Some signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” information, and other signals go to the temporal lobe, which detects “where” and “what” signals.