When you eat an apple, it is first physically broken down into smaller fragments. What is the term for this process?
Which of the following statements is true?
- The majority of water is reabsorbed by the small intestines.
- Elimination is a process that occurs via diffusion.
- Absorption is the process that chemically breaks down food.
- The small intestines absorb nutrients.
Ruminants and pseudo-ruminants are both able to digest plant materials but have different mechanisms for doing so. Which of the following is a pseudo-ruminant?
Which of the following statements about animal digestion is true?
- Roughage is digested very quickly.
- Birds eat large quantities at one time.
- Birds have a four-chambered stomach.
- In pseudo-ruminants, roughage is digested in the cecum.
Chemical and mechanical digestion begins in the mouth, and food is prepared into a _____, which is then swallowed.
Which of the following statements about digestion is true?
- Pepsin is converted to pepsinogen with the help of hydrochloric acid.
- Starch digestion begins in the mouth.
- Wave-like muscle movements called peristalsis move food from the stomach to the mouth.
- Amino acids are absorbed through the intestinal lining of the ileum.
Chyme is highly acidic. What is secreted by the pancreas to neutralize chyme?
- hydrochloric acid
How does the liver assist in fat digestion?
- produces bicarbonate
- concentrates bile salts
- produces bile
- produces pepsin
When you eat food, it is vital that the nutrients be absorbed. How does absorption occur?
- Food is mechanically and chemically broken down into smaller molecules.
- Alternating waves of muscular contraction facilitate movement of food.
- Partially digested food flows into the small intestine and food regurgitation is prevented.
- Nutrients diffuse across the intestines.
Certain organs control the release of hormones that have vital roles in digestion. Which of the following controls hunger and satiety signals?
- adrenal cortex
One cup of which of the following has the most calories?
- spaghetti with tomato sauce
- deep-fried zucchini
- mixed fruit
- scrambled eggs
Plant materials, such as fruits and vegetables, are difficult to digest because they are difficult to break down. How are humans able to obtain nutrients from fruits and vegetables?
- Humans produce cellulase, which breaks down cellulose.
- Intestinal flora have enzymes that break down some of the fiber.
- Bile is released from the gallbladder to break down fiber.
- In the stomach, pepsin is produced to break down plant material.
Which statement is not an example of how fat is beneficial?
- Fat helps absorb lipid-soluble vitamins.
- Fat helps produce lipid-soluble hormones.
- Fat has low energy density.
- Fat makes you feel full faster.
Certain molecules are required by but not produced by the body. Fat- and water-soluble _______ are organic molecules that cannot be produced by the body but are required for many enzymatic functions.
- amino acids
What is the result of insufficient amounts of the mineral iodine in the body?
- muscle weakness
- poor immune function
- mood disturbances
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the source of energy for cells. ATP stores energy in _______ bonds.
Which of the following statements about glycogen is true?
- When an individual is sedentary, glycogen is converted to glucose.
- The liver releases glycogen when blood sugar drops.
- ATP is produced by excess glycogen and glucose.
- During glycolysis, glycogen is converted to pyruvic acid.
What is produced from excess ATP and glucose?
- essential nutrients
Which of the following is not a reason why ATP is required by animals?
- ATP is needed to build organic molecules.
- ATP provides energy for muscle contraction.
- ATP assists in electrical signal transmission.
- ATP is the body’s fuel source.
Different macromolecules have varying amounts of energy density. Which of the following is the least energy dense?
Which of the following does not play a role in masticating food?
Which of the following statements about the process of digestion is true?
- Organisms absorb large molecules through digestive cells.
- The last step of digestion is absorption.
- Food is only mechanically broken down in the mouth.
- Food is prepared into a bolus before it is swallowed.
Which of the following enzymes is involved in carbohydrate digestion?
- pancreatic amylase
In protein digestion, what happens in the stomach?
- Aminopeptidase and dipeptidase break peptides into amino acids.
- Pepsin breaks proteins into peptides.
- Trypsin, elastase, and chymotrypsin break proteins into peptides.
- Carboxypeptidase breaks peptides into amino acids and peptides.
Water reabsorption is an essential component of processing food. Where is the majority of water reabsorbed?
- small intestines
If you come down with the flu, you might experience emesis. What causes emesis?
- stomach muscle contractions
- neural signals that urge elimination
- inadequate water reabsorption
- excess water reabsorption
Not all organs involved in processing food are involved in digestion. Which of the following organs is not involved in digestion?
- small intestine
Which of the following statements about digestion of food in the large intestines is true?
- Mechanical digestion occurs by bacteria.
- Semi-solid waste is moved by wave-like muscle contractions.
- Most nutrients are absorbed.
- Peristaltic mixing occurs.
Taking in food, or ____, is the first step of gaining nutrients from food.
What is the correct order of processes by which nutrients and energy are obtained from food?
- digestion → ingestion → absorption → elimination
- ingestion → absorption → digestion → elimination
- ingestion → digestion → absorption → elimination
- ingestion → digestion → elimination → absorption
Gastric control has three phases that assist in digesting food. Which phase is initiated by chyme?
Which of the following occurs during the cephalic phase of gastric control?
- Salivation is triggered.
- Food is processed by gastric acids and enzymes.
- Gastrin is produced.
- Digestive secretions are released.
Hormones are essential for digesting ingested food items. Which hormone controls the release of bile from the gallbladder?
What is the role of gastrin in food digestion and absorption?
- Gastrin stimulates release of stomach acid.
- Gastrin stimulates production of bicarbonate.
- Gastrin stimulates pancreatic juice production.
- Gastrin stops the release of stomach acid.
The gastric phase assists in processing ingested materials. When does the gastric phase begin?
- when food is smelled
- when food reaches the stomach
- when chyme enters the small intestines
- when food is ingested