1
Who devised a commonly used classification system?
  1. Carl Linnaeus
  2. Darwin
  3. Plato
  4. Aristotle
2
Which of the following uses a hierarchial model to classify organisms?
  1. analogy
  2. taxonomic classification system
  3. Order
  4. systematics
3
Correctly list the hierarchy of taxonomy.
  1. Kingdom, Domain, Phylum, Order, Class, Family, Genus, species
  2. Domain, Kingdom, Class, Phylum, Order, Family, Genus, species
  3. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species
  4. Domain, Kingdom, Class, Phylum, Order, Family, Genus, species
4
Which of category, below the level of Kingdom, would have the next largest number of organisms?
  1. Order
  2. Phylum
  3. Family
  4. Class
5
How is systematics related to phylogeny?
  1. Systematics provides guidelines that scientists use to describe the relationships of organisms.
  2. Scientists use systematics programs to put together the phylogeny of an organism.
  3. In systematics, scientists use combined data based on evolutionary relationships from many sources to put together the phylogeny of an organism.
  4. Systematics is a process used to put together the phylogeny of an organism.
6
Which of the following is the best explanation of what systematists do?
  1. Scientists in the field of systematics organize organisms by characteristics.
  2. Scientists in the field of systematics provide information on how organisms are similar or different.
  3. Scientists in the field of systematics contribute to building, updating, and maintaining the “tree of life.”
  4. Scientists in the field of systematics collect data from fossils.
7
What is the purpose of a phylogenetic tree?
  1. to organize and name organisms into specific categories
  2. The taxonomy is used to organize and name organisms into specific categories.
  3. to show the evolutionary pathways and connections among organisms
  4. to show geographic or behavioral factors
8
What does the term “rooted” mean on a phylogenetic tree diagram?
  1. relationships among species do not show
  2. all organisms represented in the diagram relate to a single ancestral lineage
  3. a single lineage evolved into a distinct new one
  4. A lineage evolved early from the root and remains unbranched.
9
Phylogeny is important to everyday life in human society. How did the research team in China use phylogeny as a guide to discover new plants that can be used to benefit people?
  1. The research team used DNA to uncover phylogenetic relationships in the legume family, and they found a compound in the plant that is effective in treating cancer.
  2. The research team used DNA to uncover phylogenetic relationships in the legume family, and then they identified a newly discovered plant as Dalbergia sissoo.
  3. The research team used DNA to uncover phylogenetic relationships in the legume family, and they found a DNA marker that can be used to screen for plants with potential medicinal properties.
  4. The research team searched all the relatives of the newly discovered plant Dlabergia sissoo to find antifungal properties.
10
Which animals in the figure belong to a clade that includes animals with hair? Which evolved first, hair or the amniotic egg?
  1. Rabbit and Human-Hair evolved before the amniotic egg.
  2. Rabbit-Hair evolved before the amniotic egg.
  3. Rabbit and Human-Amniotic egg evolved before hair.
  4. Lancelet-Hair evolved before the amniotic egg.
11
What is the largest clade in the preceding diagram?
  1. Animals, Fungi, and Plants
  2. Fungi
  3. Diplomonads
  4. Flagellates
12
Why is it important for scientists to distinguish between homologous and analogous characteristics before building phylogenetic trees?
  1. Phylogenetic trees are based on evolutionary connections, so scientists can use the analogous characteristics to build the phylogenetic trees.
  2. Phylogenetic trees are based on evolutionary connections, so scientists can use the homologous characteristics to build the phylogenetic trees.
  3. Phylogenetic trees are based on similar functions, so scientists can use the homologous characteristics to build the phylogenetic trees.
  4. Phylogenetic trees are based on similar functions, so scientists can use the homologous characteristics to build the phylogenetic trees.
13
Describe an analogous structure.
  1. A penguin and a seagull both have wings. The penguin uses wings to swim while the seagull uses wings to fly.
  2. Lizards and whales have similar skeleton structures, but they have a different habitat and lifestyle.
  3. Birds and butterflies have wings with similar characteristics for flight even though their wings do not share an evolutionary relationship.
  4. The bone structure in leg of a cat is very similar to the bone structure in the arm of a human, but the functions of the limbs are very different.
14
What is the ring of life?
  1. a phylogenetic model where all three domains of life evolved from a pool of primitive prokaryotes
  2. an evolutionary history and relationship of an organism or group of organisms
  3. a phylogenetic model that attempts to incorporate the effects of horizontal gene transfer on evolution
  4. a field of organizing and classifying organisms based on evolutionary relationships
15
Some individual prokaryotes were responsible for transferring the bacteria that caused mitochondrial development to the new eukaryotes, whereas other species transferred the bacteria that gave rise to chloroplasts. This statement best describes which model?
  1. ring of life
  2. tree of life
  3. branches of life
  4. web of life
16
Explain why the classic tree model needs to be revised.
  1. The model is unable to incorporate DNA evidence.
  2. The model is erroneously based on many analogous traits, which have no basis in evolutionary relationships.
  3. The model cannot be experimentally verified.
  4. The model does not consider the possibility that genes could be transferred between unrelated species.
17
Compare three different ways that eukaryotic cells may have evolved.
  1. Some hypotheses propose that mitochondria were acquired first. Others propose that the nucleus evolved first. Still others hypothesize that prokaryotes descended from eukaryotes by the loss of genes and complexity.
  2. Some hypotheses propose that eukaryotic cells are a combination of bacterial and archaeal cells. Others propose that eukaryotic cells are a combination of bacterial and fungal cells. Still others hypothesize that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells developed independently.
  3. Some hypotheses propose that mitochondria developed from bacterial cells. Others propose that they developed from archaeal cells. Still others hypothesize that bacteria developed from mitochondria that had been released from eukaryotic cells.
  4. Some hypotheses propose that eukaryotic cells developed from gram-negative bacteria. Others propose that they developed from gram-positive bacteria. Still others hypothesize that both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria contributed to the eukaryotic genome through horizontal gene transfer.
18
Explain the ring of life model.
  1. The ring of life model is a phylogenetic model where the three domains of life started as distinct groups that could swap genes horizontally with each other in all directions.
  2. The ring of life model is a phylogenetic model where all three domains of life are said to have developed from a pool of primitive prokaryotes.
  3. The ring of life model is a phylogenetic model where bacterial and archaeal cells fused to form eukaryotic cells.
  4. The ring of life model is a phylogenetic model where there is only a single domain of life due to modern DNA analysis.
19.
.

In a transformation experiment, a sample of E. coli bacteria was mixed with a plasmid containing the gene for resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin (ampr). Plasmid was not added to the second sample. Samples were plated on nutrient agar plates, some of which were supplemented with the antibiotic ampicillin. The results of E. coli growth are summarized below. The shaded area represents extensive growth of bacteria; dots represent individual colonies of bacteria. Plates that have only ampicillin resistant bacteria include which of the following?

  1. I only
  2. III only
  3. IV only
  4. I and II