1
Which scientific concept did Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace independently discover?
  1. mutation
  2. natural selection
  3. overbreeding
  4. sexual reproduction
2
Which of these statements about a natural principle that points to the inevitability of natural selection is false?
  1. Most characteristics of organisms are inherited.
  2. Offspring vary among each other in regard to their characteristics.
  3. Some generations of offspring do not need to compete for resources.
  4. Certain traits will be better represented in the next generation.
3
Which is the best definition of adaptation?
  1. a trait or behavior that aids an organism’s survival and reproduction
  2. a heritable trait or behavior that aids an organism’s survival and reproduction
  3. a trait or behavior that aids a population’s survival and reproduction
  4. a heritable trait or behavior that aids a population’s survival and reproduction
4
Which is an example of an adaptation?
  1. The better nutrition of a human helps her grow taller.
  2. The webbed feet of a duck help it swim.
  3. The urban location of a raccoon helps it find food.
  4. The large leaves of a desert plant require more water.
5
Which of the processes described is divergent evolution?
  1. Groups of organisms evolve in different directions from a common point.
  2. A new species develops rapidly when an event cuts off a portion of a population.
  3. Groups of organisms independently evolve to similar forms.
  4. A species evolves when a few members move to a new geographical area.
6
Which situation is most likely an example of convergent evolution?
  1. Some fish that live in total darkness have eyes.
  2. Hawks and other birds have feathers.
  3. Worms and snakes both move without legs.
  4. Flowers that look very different have the same reproductive organs.
7
What are homologous structures?
  1. physical structures that have no apparent function
  2. parallel structures in diverse organisms
  3. physical structures that are used only occasionally
  4. similar structures in diverse organisms
8
Which of the following are two examples of vestigial structures?
  1. gills in fish and parts of the throat in humans
  2. butterfly wings and dragonfly wings
  3. hind leg bones in whales and leaves on some cacti
  4. shark fins and dolphin fins
9
Which statement best describes the relationship between the theory of evolution and the origin of life?
  1. The theory includes an explanation of life’s origins.
  2. The theory cannot explain the origin of life.
  3. The theory does not try to explain the origin of life.
  4. The theory does not contribute understanding to pre-life processes.
10
Which best describes what happens when an antibiotic is applied to a population of bacteria?
  1. The bacteria develops resistance to the antibiotic in direct response to its application.
  2. The bacteria’s genetic material mutates in response to the antibiotic, resulting in resistance.
  3. A gene for resistance, already present in the population, decreases in frequency.
  4. A gene for resistance, already present in the population, increases in frequency.
11
Which is the best definition of species?
  1. A group of individual organisms with significant genetic similarities
  2. a group of individual organisms with significant genetic similarities that share external and internal characteristics
  3. a group of individual organisms that interbreed
  4. a group of individual organisms that interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring
12
What do scientists focus on to distinguish between species?
  1. ecological niches
  2. morphological differences
  3. reproductive barriers
  4. genetic changes
13
Which are two primary sources of genetic variation?
  1. mutations and sexual reproduction
  2. isolation and sexual reproduction
  3. sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction
  4. migration and sexual reproduction
14
Which statement best describes the relationship between genetic variation and speciation?
  1. Without genetic variation, speciation would occur more slowly.
  2. Without genetic variation, speciation would not be possible.
  3. Genetic variation influences sympatric speciation, but not allopatric speciation.
  4. There is no relationship between genetic variation and any form of speciation.
15
Which statement about postzygotic barriers is false?
  1. They occur after fertilization.
  2. They include hybrids that are sterile.
  3. They include hybrid organisms that don’t survive the embryonic stage.
  4. They include reproductive organ incompatibility.
16
Which situation is an example of a prezygotic barrier?
  1. Two species of fish produce sterile offspring.
  2. Two species of flowers attract different pollinators.
  3. Two species of insects mate, but the zygote does not survive.
  4. Two species of lizards mate, but the offspring dies before reproducing.
17
Which situation would most likely lead to allopatric speciation?
  1. A flood causes the formation of a new lake
  2. A storm causes several large trees to fall down.
  3. A mutation causes a new trait to develop.
  4. An injury causes an organism to seek out a new food source.
18
What is the main difference between an autopolyploid individual and a allopolyploid individual?
  1. number of extra chromosomes
  2. functionality of extra chromosomes
  3. source of extra chromosomes
  4. number of mutations in the extra chromosomes
19
What is unique about speciation due to adaptive radiation?
  1. It leads to multiple species forming from one parent species.
  2. It only occurs on or around island archipelagos.
  3. It requires a population to disperse from its parent species.
  4. It is a special kind of sympatric speciation.
20
Which is least likely to be a factor that increases the probability of speciation by adaptive radiation?
  1. There are vacant ecological niches nearby.
  2. Genetic drift in a population increases.
  3. There are isolated regions with suitable habitats.
  4. There are few competitor species.
21
In a hybrid zone, in addition to interacting, what else do two closely related species do?
  1. compete
  2. reproduce
  3. transition
  4. fuse
22
Which situation means reinforcement is more likely to occur in the hybrid zone?
  1. The hybrid offspring are more fit than the parent species.
  2. Reproductive barriers weaken.
  3. The hybrid offspring are about as fit as the parent species.
  4. Reproductive barriers strengthen.
23
Which of the following statements is false?
  1. Graudal speciation and punctuated equilibrium both result in the divergence of species.
  2. Punctuated equilibrium is most likely to occur in a large population in a stable environment.
  3. In the punctuated equilibrium model, gradualism is not excluded.
  4. In the gradual speciation model, traits change incrementally.
24
Which component of speciation would be least likely to be a part of punctuated equilibrium?
  1. a division in populations
  2. a change in environmental conditions
  3. ongoing gene flow
  4. a number of mutations occuring at once