28
Which factor explains that in general, temperate and polar regions have less biodiversity than tropical regions?
  1. The tropical regions are subjected to extreme changes of season.
  2. The polar regions were populated earliest in the history of Earth.
  3. The polar regions receive more intense solar energy.
  4. The tropical regions contain more micro-ecosystems.
29
One method used to calculate contemporary extinction rates is based on the recorded extinction of species in the last 500 years. A second method is a calculation based on the rate of habitat destruction. The construction of a new dam is being projected. A team of conservation biologists is preparing a report on the environmental impact of the dam. Decide which of the two methods should be adopted to estimate the effect of the construction of the extinction rate in the area and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
  1. The extinction rates calculation method should be adopted. It is based on a large number of observations and measurements but overestimates rates of extinction. The rate of habitat destruction calculation method uses species-area curves, but underestimates the rate of extinction.
  2. The extinction rates calculation method should be adopted. It is based on a large number of observations and measurements, but overestimates rates of extinction. The rate of habitat destruction calculation method uses species-area curves, but underestimates the rate of extinction.
  3. The rate of habitat destruction calculation method should be adopted. The extinction rates calculation method is based on a large number of observations and measurements but overestimates rates of extinction. The rate of habitat destruction calculation method uses species-area curves, but underestimates the rate of extinction.
  4. Extinction rates are calculated based on the recorded extinction of species in the past 500 years using data from a large number of observations and measurements. They do not take into account unobserved extinctions and undiscovered species. In this way, the method underestimates rates of extinction. The second method based on the amount of habitat destruction and on species-area curves is more adapted to this situation, although it is not based on existing data and is likely to overestimate the rate of extinction.
30
Analyze the evidence scientists provide for the cause of the Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction.
  1. the unusual abundance of iridium in the Cretaceous-Paleogene layers, the disappearance of so many species at its transition, volcanic activity that led to global warming, and the crater found in the Yucatan peninsula
  2. the unusual abundance of iridium in the Cretaceous-Paleogene layers, gamma-ray burst caused by a nearby supernova, rocks found in the clay layer at its boundary, and the crater found in the Yucatan peninsula
  3. the unusual abundance of iridium in the Cretaceous-Paleogene layers, the disappearance of so many species at its transition, rocks found in the clay layer at its boundary, asteroid impact, and volcanic eruptions at large
  4. the unusual abundance of iridium in the Cretaceous-Paleogene layers, the disappearance of so many species at its transition, rocks found in the clay layer at its boundary, and the crater found in the Yucatan peninsula
31
The island of Madagascar is located in the tropics 300 miles east of the coast of Africa, from which it separated 165 million years ago. It is characterized by a large number of endemic species. What are the main reasons that Madagascar is a hotspot of endemic biodiversity?
  1. Madagascar has a climate that is more conducive to evolution than the larger African continent.
  2. Madagascar is close to the tropics of Africa and consequently has a large number of species.
  3. Madagascar shows species diversity of both temperate and tropical regions.
  4. Madagascar has been isolated geographically and species evolved there without interaction with outside influences.
32
Consider the following examples. The toxicity in the venom from a Brazilian viper (Bothropsjararaca) is due to a sudden, massive drop in blood pressure, which slows down the reaction of a bitten prey. Solutions made from the opium poppy have been used in the past to dull the sensation of pain and induces a sense of wellbeing. How can the effects of these natural compounds be applied to the development of medical treatments?
  1. Compounds similar to the snake’s active toxin are used routinely as antivirals. Opioids are used as immunomodulators, which modifies an immune response.
  2. Compounds similar to the snake’s active toxin are used routinely as painkillers. Opioids help in the lowering of blood pressure.
  3. Compounds similar to the snake’s active toxin are used to treat inflammations. Opioids are used to prevent muscle spasms.
  4. Compounds similar to the snake’s active toxin are used to lower blood pressure. Opioids are used routinely as painkillers.
33
Phylloxera, a pest related to aphids, destroyed many vineyards in France at the end of the 19th century. The vineyards were restored by grafting old vines on American root stocks, which were resistant to the pest. Using this situation, explain how biodiversity loss can impact crop diversity.
  1. Loss of wild species would result in inbreeding depression, as crop varieties must be bred with wild species to remain viable.
  2. Loss of biodiversity reduces large-scale monocultures but reinforces genetic homogeneity contributing in the loss of crop diversity.
  3. Loss of wild species would result in an increase of intraspecific diversity within the different crop varieties, but decrease in interspecific crop diversity.
  4. Loss of wild species would reduce the genetic variations as genes from wild relatives are brought into crop varieties to add valued characteristics to crops.
34
Predict the consequences of the bee colony collapse disorder in a state such as California, which is a large supplier of produce.
  1. Only pharmaceutical manufacturing and industries involved in honey production are going to be affected due to this disorder.
  2. Other pollinators would replace the bees in the ecosystem and there would probably not be a major impact on the production of produce.
  3. Lack of pollinators would affect the honey industry, but not the fruit harvest industry, because other pollinators are present to carry out pollination.
  4. The lack of pollinators will affect the fruit harvest directly, and indirectly affect industries linked to it like the honey and jam preparation industries.
35
Many chemical pesticides can be found in the bark and leaves of tropical plants. What is a difference in tropical plants that makes it especially beneficial to produce compounds that kill insects throughout the year?
  1. Because plants have to protect themselves year-round, as cold spells in winter do not kill pests as they do in temperate areas.
  2. Because the plants must protect themselves from insects as repellants and toxins sprayed by humans do not work in tropical areas.
  3. Because the compounds produced to kill insects also enhances the ability of the plant to recover from damage caused by various phenomena.
  4. Because compounds produced to kill insects also influence the behavior and growth of tropical plants.
36
Explain how the increase in human population and resource use causes increased extinction rates by altering ecosystems.
  1. Human population growth leads to unsustainable resource use, habitat destruction, and the unsustainable fishing and hunting of wild animal populations. All these incidences results in a slow evolutionary rate of formation of new species.
  2. Human population growth leads to unsustainable resource use, habitat destruction, and the unsustainable fishing and hunting of wild animal populations. Climate change also occurs due to excessive use of fossil fuels.
  3. Human population growth leads to unsustainable resource use, habitat destruction, and unsustainable fishing and hunting of wild animal populations. Excessive use of fossil fuels is leading to reduced populations of fish species.
  4. Human population growth leads to unsustainable resource use, habitat destruction, and unsustainable fishing and hunting of wild animal populations. Larger human populations are also leading to decreased value of products obtained from species.
37
As a conservationist, you are preparing a report on a frog population living on a mountainside in Costa Rica. In your report, which potential threats to the survival of the species will you predict taking into account environmental abiotic conditions and human activities?
  1. The frog is at risk from climate change, habitat destruction, and aggressive predators.
  2. The frog is at risk from climate change, exotic species, and possible habitat destruction.
  3. The frog is at risk from climate change, habitat destruction, and sparse availability of food.
  4. The frog is at risk from climate change, exotic species, and over-hunting in its habitat.
38
Epidemiologists are predicting that diseases such as West Nile virus infection, dengue fever, and even malaria may expand their range. If the pathogens are viruses or protists, how could they most rapidly expand their range over a large geographic area?
  1. through the air
  2. through contaminated food and water
  3. through direct human contact from increased presence in wilderness areas
  4. through vectors such as mosquitoes
39
Explain why the hunting of large, top predators such as sharks or wolves, endanger the entire ecosystems in which they live.
  1. The disappearance of top predators results in unrestricted multiplication of producers. Producers will overgraze primary consumers.
  2. If a top predator disappears, the primary consumers will multiply without restriction, but producers will not be affected.
  3. If a top predator disappears, producers will multiply without restriction.
  4. The disappearance of top predators results in unrestricted multiplication of primary consumers. Primary consumers will overgraze producers.
40
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) passed a resolution to protect rhinoceroses in the wild. Rhinoceroses have been hunted to the brink of extinction because their horns, which are made of simple keratin, are considered an aphrodisiac and a powerful drug in some cultures. Why does the protection of rhinoceroses require an international agreement?
  1. The rhinoceroses are hunted in their native countries, but the trade crosses borders.
  2. The use of rhinoceros’ horns as an aphrodisiac has showed various negative effects internationally.
  3. The hunters from different countries travel to the native country to hunt for rhinoceroses.
  4. Their demand is greater in foreign countries as compared to their native countries.
41
A preserve design is proposed for a densely populated suburban area. Which overall design plan would be best for preservation of local ecosystems?
  1. Set up many, small, protected areas.
  2. Select one, small area that is isolated from residences.
  3. Plan buffer zones around all backyard spaces.
  4. Set up several, larger areas to be set aside for natural ecosystems.
42
Wolves are a keystone species in the Yellowstone National Park. Predict what would happen if they were hunted to extinction.
  1. Many species would increase and the elk population would disappear.
  2. Many species would disappear and the elk population would increase.
  3. Many species along with elk population would increase.
  4. Many species, along with the elk population, would disappear.
43
Why have international treaties been rarely enforced so far?
  1. Signatory nations follow through with their good intentions. No governing body enforces international environmental protection.
  2. Signatory nations do not follow through with their good intentions. A governing body enforces international environmental protection.
  3. Signatory nations do not follow through with their good intentions. No governing body enforces international environmental protection.
  4. Signatory nations follow through with their good intentions. A governing body enforces international environmental protection, but neither is effective.