20
How does the structure of alveoli maximize gas exchange?
  1. Their sac-like structure increases their surface area.
  2. Their direct connection to the bronchi maximizes their access to air.
  3. They actively transport the gases between the air and blood.
  4. They are spheres that fully fill with blood, which will come in contact with air.
21
What structures of the respiratory system warm and remove impurities from inhaled air?
  1. The epiglottis deflects impurities out of the trachea and into the esophagus, while the nasal cavity warms the air.
  2. Hair and mucus in the nose and trachea catch impurities, while the nasal cavity warms the air.
  3. Saliva in the mouth and hair in the trachea catch impurities, while the pharynx warms the air.
  4. The closed-off compartments of the larynx trap impurities in the air and warm the air.
22
If you were travelling in a miniaturized ship through the respiratory system, from the pharynx to an alveolus, which structures would you pass along the way, and in what order?
  1. trachea, larynx, bronchi, and bronchioles
  2. larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
  3. bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, and larynx
  4. bronchioles, trachea, bronchi, and larynx
23
What does FEV1/FVC measure and why will the ratio increase with lung fibrosis?
  1. the forced expiratory volume in one second in relation to the total forced vital capacity; lung fibrosis causes the lungs to decrease in size
  2. the functional expiratory volume in one second in relation to the total functional vital capacity; lung fibrosis causes the lungs to decrease in size
  3. the functional expiratory volume in one second in relation to the total functional vital capacity; lung fibrosis causes the lungs to become less pliable
  4. the forced expiratory volume in one second in relation to the total forced vital capacity; lung fibrosis causes the lungs to become less pliable
24
Compare the partial pressure of oxygen between venous blood in an alveolus and air and between arterial blood and body tissues?
  1. higher in the blood than in the air and higher in the blood than in the body tissues
  2. lower in the blood than in the air and higher in the blood than in the body tissues
  3. higher in the blood than in the air and lower in the blood than in the body tissues
  4. lower in the blood than in the air and lower in the blood than in the body tissues
25
What conditions of the lungs would cause a an increase in FEV1/FVC? What about a decrease FEV1/FVC?
  1. This ratio increases as the lungs become stiff and less pliable, increasing further when there is increased resistance in the lung.
  2. This ratio decreases as the lungs become stiff and less pliable, increasing when there is increased resistance in the lung.
  3. This ratio increases as the lungs become stiff and less pliable, decreasing when there is increased resistance in the lung.
  4. This ratio decreases as the lungs become stiff and less pliable, decreasing further when there is increased resistance in the lung.
26
Amphibians, such as frogs, breathe by collecting air in a pouch below their throat. Muscles then contract the pouch and force air into their lungs. How does this differ from inhalation in humans and other mammals?
  1. Inhalation in humans and other mammals involves the openings called spiracles, which connect to the tubular network to allow the oxygen to pass into the body.
  2. Inhalation in humans and other mammals involve direct diffusion across the outer membrane to meet oxygen requirements. Gases can diffuse quickly through direct diffusion.
  3. Inhalation in humans and other mammals involve contracting the thoracic cavity by creating negative pressure in the lungs, which causes air to diffuse into the lungs.
  4. Inhalation in humans and other mammals involves expanding the thoracic cavity by creating negative pressure in the lungs, which causes air to diffuse into the lungs.
27
If a patient has increased resistance in his or her lungs, how can this be detected by a doctor? What does this mean?
  1. This can be detected using a nebulizer. By detecting the rate at which air can be taken into the lung, a diagnosis of a restrictive disease can be made.
  2. This can be detected using spirometry. By detecting the rate at which air can be taken into the lung, a diagnosis of a restrictive disease can be made.
  3. This can be detected using a nebulizer. By detecting the rate at which air can be expelled from the lung, a diagnosis of a restrictive disease can be made.
  4. This can be detected using spirometry. By detecting the rate at which air can be expelled from the lung, a diagnosis of a restrictive disease can be made.
28
When someone is standing, gravity stretches the bottom of the lung down toward the floor to a greater extent than the top of the lung. What implication could this have on ventilation in the lungs?
  1. Concentration gradient leads to increased ventilation further down in the lung.
  2. Pleural pressure gradient leads to increased ventilation further down in the lung.
  3. Pleural pressure gradient leads to decreased ventilation further down in the lung.
  4. Concentration gradient leads to decreased ventilation further down in the lung.
29
How does the administration of 100 percent oxygen save a patient from carbon monoxide poisoning? Why wouldn’t giving carbon dioxide work?
  1. At that concentration, oxygen will be transported in the body at a high rate by dissolving in blood. Oxygen has more affinity for hemoglobin than carbon dioxide.
  2. At that concentration, oxygen will displace the carbon monoxide from the hemoglobin. Oxygen has more affinity for hemoglobin than carbon dioxide.
  3. At that concentration, oxygen will displace the carbon monoxide from the hemoglobin. Carbon dioxide has more affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen.
  4. At that concentration, oxygen will be transported in the body at a high rate by dissolving in blood. Carbon dioxide has more affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen.
30
What would happen if no carbonic anhydrase was present in red blood cells?
  1. Carbon dioxide would be hydrolyzed into carbonic acid or bicarbonate. The maximum amount of carbon dioxide would be transported in the blood away from the tissues.
  2. Carbon dioxide would not be hydrolyzed into carbonic acid or bicarbonate. The maximum amount of carbon dioxide would be transported in the blood away from the tissues.
  3. Oxygen would not be hydrolyzed into carbonic acid or bicarbonate. Only 15 percent of carbon dioxide would be transported in the blood away from the tissues.
  4. Carbon dioxide would not be hydrolyzed into carbonic acid or bicarbonate. Only 15 percent of carbon dioxide would be transported in the blood away from the tissues.
31
What is sickle cell anemia and how does it affect the perfusion of oxygen in the blood?
  1. It is a genetic disease in which red blood cells are sickle-shaped, reducing oxygen perfusion into the blood.
  2. It is a genetic disease in which red blood cells are sickle-shaped, increasing oxygen perfusion into the blood.
  3. It is a deficiency disease in which red blood cells are sickle-shaped, reducing oxygen perfusion into the blood.
  4. It is a deficiency disease in which red blood cells are sickle-shaped, increasing oxygen perfusion into the blood.