1
What is the primary function of the respiratory system?
  1. provides body tissues with oxygen
  2. provides body tissues with oxygen and carbon dioxide
  3. establishes how many breaths are taken per minute
  4. provides the body with carbon dioxide
2
What is the order of airflow during inhalation?
  1. nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
  2. nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchioles, bronchi, alveoli
  3. nasal cavity, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
  4. nasal cavity, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
3
What advantages does warming air within the nasal passages provide?
  1. reduces rates of lung infection
  2. prevents foreign objects from entering the lungs
  3. prevents cell damage caused by cold air
  4. reduces fluid accumulation from cold, wet air
4
Emphysema is a disease characterized by a great reduction in the number of functioning alveoli in the lungs. What effect would emphysema likely have on the respiratory system?
  1. Less gas exchange would occur with the blood.
  2. Less air could travel through the trachea.
  3. Air could no longer pass through the nasal cavity.
  4. Air could no longer vibrate the vocal cords of the larynx.
5
The inspiratory reserve volume measures the____.
  1. amount of air remaining in the lung after a maximal exhalation
  2. amount of air the lung holds
  3. amount of air that can be further exhaled after a normal breath
  4. amount of air that can be further inhaled after a normal breath
6
The total lung capacity is calculated using which formula?
  1. residual volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
  2. residual volume + expiratory reserve volume + inspiratory reserve volume
  3. expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
  4. residual volume + expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
7
Why is the partial pressure of oxygen lower in the lung than in the external air?
  1. Oxygen is constantly being removed by air in the lungs through the blood.
  2. Carbon dioxide does not mix with oxygen in the lung.
  3. The lungs exert pressure on the air to reduce the oxygen pressure.
  4. Changes in water vapor pressure cause less oxygen to enter the air in the lungs.
8
How can a decrease in the percent of oxygen in the air affect the movement of oxygen in the body?
  1. It would not affect the rate of diffusion into the blood because there would be no difference between the partial pressures of the air and blood.
  2. It would decrease the rate of diffusion into the blood because it increases the difference between the partial pressures of the air and blood.
  3. It would increase the rate of diffusion into the blood because it reduces the difference between the partial pressures of the air and blood.
  4. It would decrease the rate of diffusion into the blood because it reduces the difference between the partial pressures of the air and blood.
9
What role do the intercostal muscles play in inspiration and expiration?
  1. They move down, causing inspiration, and move up, causing expiration.
  2. They move up, causing inspiration, and move down, causing expiration.
  3. They relax, causing inspiration, and contract, causing expiration.
  4. They contract, causing inspiration, and relax, causing expiration.
10
How would paralysis of the diaphragm alter inspiration?
  1. It would prevent contraction of the intercostal muscles.
  2. It would prevent inhalation because the intrapleural pressure would not change.
  3. It would decrease the intrapleural pressure and allow more air to enter the lungs.
  4. It would slow expiration because the lung would not relax.
11
Restrictive airway diseases _____.
  1. increase the compliance of the lung
  2. decrease the compliance of the lung
  3. increase the lung volume
  4. decrease the work of breathing
12
A patient is suffering from an allergic reaction that causes his airways to swell up. How would this most likely affect resistance of the respiratory system, and why?
  1. Resistance decreases because it will be harder for air to flow through the airways.
  2. Resistance decreases because the airways are more compliant.
  3. Resistance increases because it will be harder for air to flow through the airways.
  4. Resistance increases because the airways are more compliant.
13
What is a physiological dead space and what could be its cause?
  1. A physiological dead space is a region of lung tissue that is leaking air. It could be caused by a puncture wound.
  2. A physiological dead space is a region of lung tissue that is not receiving electrical stimulation from the nervous system. It could be caused by a reduction in neurotransmitters.
  3. A physiological dead space is a region of lung tissue that is not involved in gas exchange because the tissue is not functioning properly. It could be caused by the alveoli capillaries are not receiving blood flow.
  4. A physiological dead space is a region of lung tissue that is not involved in gas exchange because the tissue has a defect in its structure. It could be caused by a genetic condition.
14
How will the respiratory rate and volume of air per breath change if alveolar ventilation is too high or too low?
  1. If ventilation is low, the respiratory rate will decrease while the volume of air per breath is decreased. If ventilation is high, the respiratory rate will increase while the volume of air per breath decreases.
  2. If ventilation is low, the respiratory rate will decrease while the volume of air per breath is increased. If ventilation is high, the respiratory rate will increase while the volume of air per breath decreases.
  3. If ventilation is low, the respiratory rate will increase while the volume of air per breath is decreased. If ventilation is high, the respiratory rate will increase while the volume of air per breath increases.
  4. If ventilation is low, the respiratory rate will increase while the volume of air per breath is decreased. If ventilation is high, the respiratory rate will increase while the volume of air per breath decreases.
15
What does elastic recoil in the lungs refer to and does it aid inspiration or expiration?
  1. the ability of the diaphragm to contract and relax to change the volume of the lung, inspiration
  2. the reserve air in the lungs that is present even after maximum exhalation, expiration
  3. the ability of the bronchioles to expand and retract as air enters and exits, inspiration
  4. the ability of lung tissue to exert pressure back towards the lung’s interior, expiration
16
Low pH in the blood will _____ hemoglobin’s affinity for _____.
  1. increase, carbon dioxide
  2. increase, oxygen
  3. decrease, carbon dioxide
  4. decrease, oxygen
17
Which of the following will not facilitate the transfer of oxygen to tissues?
  1. decreased body temperature
  2. decreased pH of the blood
  3. increased carbon dioxide
  4. increased exercise
18
How is the majority of carbon dioxide in the blood transported?
  1. binding to hemoglobin
  2. dissolution in the blood
  3. as bicarbonate
  4. binding to plasma proteins
19
How is the chloride shift related to the transport of carbon dioxide in the blood?
  1. It allows carbon dioxide, in the form of bicarbonate ions, to enter the blood plasma.
  2. It creates carbaminohemoglobin within the red blood cells.
  3. It allows the conversion of carbon dioxide into carbonic acid within red blood cells.
  4. It prevents the formation of bicarbonate ions in the blood.