25
You discover an unusual new organism in the deep sea and are studying its skeletal system in a laboratory aquarium. The organism appears to have a radial body plan with a center fluid-filled cavity. If you remove fluid from its interior using a syringe, it seems to collapse somewhat. What kind of skeletal system does this organism likely have?
  1. exoskeleton
  2. hydrostatic skeleton or exoskeleton
  3. hydrostatic skeleton
  4. endoskeleton
26
You discover the carcass of an unusual new organism on the beach while on vacation. As a scientist, you decide to chemically analyze the carcass in order to characterize it. The chemical analysis reveals significant amounts of chitin. What other molecule might you also find associated with the skeletal system of this organism?
  1. calcium carbonate
  2. calcium phosphate
  3. hydroxyapatite
  4. magnesium carbonate
27
What types of issues related to bone function would you predict for an individual suffering from a genetic lysosomal storage disease?
  1. Individuals may have deformities in the appendicular skeleton and possible phosphate homeostasis issues.
  2. Individual may have skeletal deformities and possible calcium homeostasis issues.
  3. Individuals may have axial skeleton deformities and possible calcium homeostasis issues.
  4. Individual’s brain would be more prone to injury and a possible calcium homeostasis issues.
28
A world-class pianist gets into a serious car accident. Injuries to which types of bones will most directly interfere with her career as a pianist?
  1. Injuries to carpals, humerus, radius, ulna, clavicle, metacarpals, metatarsals, tarsals and various flat bones like scapulae would cause issues.
  2. Injuries to carpals, humerus, radius, ulna, clavicle, metacarpals, phalanges and various flat bones like scapulae would cause issues.
  3. Injuries to carpals, humerus, radius, ulna, clavicle, metacarpals, femur, tibia and various flat bones like scapulae would cause issues.
  4. Injuries to carpals, humerus, femur, tibia, metatarsals, tarsals, phalanges and various flat bones like scapulae would cause issues.
29
What types of issues related to bone development and repair would you expect associated with someone suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta, a genetic disorder most commonly resulting from defects in collagen production and processing?
  1. Bones are abnormally weak, brittle and highly flexible. In severe cases, individuals may have abnormal bone formation as manifested by thicker and longer bones resulting in a taller stature.
  2. Abnormally weak bones prone to breakage and fracturing upon mild trauma would be expected. In severe cases, individuals may have abnormal bone formation as manifested by thicker and longer bones resulting in a taller stature.
  3. Bones are abnormally weak and highly flexible. In severe cases, individuals may have abnormal bone formation as manifested by thinner and/or shorter bones, perhaps resulting in a shorter stature.
  4. Abnormally weak bones prone to breakage and fracturing upon mild trauma would be expected. In severe cases, individuals may have abnormal bone formation as manifested by thinner and/or shorter bones, perhaps resulting in a shorter stature.
30
Osteoporosis is a clinical manifestation of an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation, resulting in weakened bones that easily fracture. How may one design a therapeutic drug targeting specific bone cell type(s) for the treatment of osteoporosis?
  1. A therapeutic drug that inhibits osteoblast activity would be useful. A drug that enhances the bone formation activity of osteoclasts may also be a good strategy.
  2. A therapeutic drug that inhibits osteoclast activity would be useful. One that reduces the activity of osteoblasts may also be a good strategy.
  3. A therapeutic drug that inhibits osteoblast activity would be useful. One that enhances the bone formation activity of osteoblasts may also be a good strategy.
  4. A therapeutic drug that inhibits osteoclast activity would be useful. One that enhances the bone formation activity of osteoblasts may also be a good strategy.
31
Why are shoulder dislocations more common than dislocations of the carpal bones in the hand?
  1. The less mobile a joint, the weaker the joint. The shoulder joint allows the greatest range of motion, while carpal bones are more stable.
  2. The less mobile a joint, the weaker the joint. Carpal bones allow the greatest range of motion, while shoulder joints are more stable.
  3. The more mobile a joint, the weaker the joint. Carpal bones allow the greatest range of motion while shoulder joints are more stable.
  4. The more mobile a joint, the weaker the joint. The shoulder joint allows the greatest range of motion while carpal bones are more stable.
32
What angular movements occur at the hip joint and knees as you bend down to touch your toes?
  1. Both the hip joint and knees are flexed.
  2. Both the hip joint and knees are extended.
  3. The hip joint is extended and the knees are flexed.
  4. The hip joint is flexed and the knees are extended.
33
What is the main structural difference between synovial joints and cartilaginous and fibrous joints?
  1. Synovial joints allow movement while fibrous and cartilaginous joints do not move at all.
  2. Synovial joints do not move at all while fibrous and cartilaginous joints allow movement.
  3. Synovial joints do not have a space between the adjoining bones while fibrous and cartilaginous joints have a joint cavity.
  4. Synovial joints have a space between the adjoining bones while fibrous and cartilaginous joints do not have a joint cavity.
34
What do all types of muscle tissue have in common?
  1. Voluntary muscles cannot be consciously controlled, as is the case with cardiac muscles. Involuntary muscles can be controlled by an individual’s will, as is the case with skeletal muscles.
  2. Voluntary muscles can be controlled by an individual’s will, as is the case with cardiac muscles. Involuntary muscles cannot be consciously controlled, as is the case with skeletal muscles.
  3. Voluntary muscles cannot be consciously controlled, as is the case with the movement of legs while walking. Involuntary muscles can be controlled by an individual’s will, as is the case with muscles in the digestive system.
  4. Voluntary muscles can be controlled by an individual’s will, as is the case with skeletal muscles. Involuntary muscles cannot be consciously controlled, as is the case with cardiac muscles.
35
How would muscle contractions be affected if ATP was completely depleted in a muscle fiber?
  1. Myosin heads will detach rapidly from the actin-binding sites, resulting in muscle relaxation. In a live person this causes rigor mortis, while in a recently dead person it results in “writer’s cramp”.
  2. Myosin heads will not detach from the actin-binding sites, resulting in muscle stiffness. In a live person this causes rigor mortis, while in a recently dead person it results in “writer’s cramp”.
  3. Myosin heads will detach rapidly from the actin-binding sites, resulting in muscle relaxation. In a live person this causes “writer’s cramp”, while in a recently dead person it results in rigor mortis.
  4. Myosin heads will not detach from the actin-binding sites, resulting in muscle stiffness. In a live person this causes “writer’s cramp”, while in a recently dead person it results in rigor mortis.
36
What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles? Give an example of each.
  1. Voluntary muscles cannot be consciously controlled, such as cardiac muscles. Involuntary muscles can be controlled by an individual’s will, such as skeletal muscles.
  2. Voluntary muscles can be controlled by an individual’s will, such as cardiac muscles. Involuntary muscles cannot be consciously controlled, such as skeletal muscles.
  3. Voluntary muscles cannot be consciously controlled, such as the movement of legs while walking. Involuntary muscles can be controlled by an individual’s will, such as muscles in the digestive system.
  4. Voluntary muscles can be controlled by an individual’s will, such as skeletal muscles. Involuntary muscles cannot be consciously controlled, such as cardiac muscles.