acromegaly
condition caused by overproduction of GH in adults
Addison’s disease
disorder caused by the hyposecretion of corticosteroids
adenylate cyclase
an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP
adrenal cortex
outer portion of adrenal glands that produces corticosteroids
adrenal gland
endocrine glands associated with the kidneys
adrenal medulla
inner portion of adrenal glands that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
hormone released by the anterior pituitary, which stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids during the long-term stress response
aldosterone
steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that stimulates the reabsorption of Na+ from extracellular fluids and secretion of K+.
alpha cell
endocrine cell of the pancreatic islets that produces the hormone glucagon
amino acid-derived hormone
hormone derived from amino acids
androgen
male sex hormone such as testosterone
anterior pituitary
portion of the pituitary gland that produces six hormones; also called adenohypophysis
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary that increases water reabsorption by the kidneys
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
hormone produced by the heart to reduce blood volume, pressure, and Na+ concentration
beta cell
endocrine cell of the pancreatic islets that produces the hormone insulin
calcitonin
hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland that functions to lower blood Ca2+ levels and promote bone growth
colloid
fluid inside the thyroid gland that contains the glycoprotein thyroglobulin
corticosteroid
hormone released by the adrenal cortex in response to long-term stress
cortisol
glucocorticoid produced in response to stress
Cushing’s disease
disorder caused by the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids
diabetes insipidus
disorder caused by underproduction of ADH
diabetes mellitus
disorder caused by low levels of insulin activity
diabetogenic effect
effect of GH that causes blood glucose levels to rise similar to diabetes mellitus
down-regulation
a decrease in the number of hormone receptors in response to increased hormone levels
endocrine gland
gland that secretes hormones into the surrounding interstitial fluid, which then diffuse into blood and are carried to various organs and tissues within the body
epinephrine
hormone released by the adrenal medulla in response to a short term stress
erythropoietin (EPO)
hormone produced by the kidneys to stimulate red blood cell production in the bone marrow
estrogens
- a group of steroid hormones, including estradiol and several others, that are produced by the ovaries and elicit secondary sex characteristics in females as well as control the maturation of the ova
first messenger
the hormone that binds to a plasma membrane hormone receptor to trigger a signal transduction pathway
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates gamete production
G-protein
a membrane protein activated by the hormone first messenger to activate formation of cyclic AMP
gigantism
condition caused by overproduction of GH in children
glucagon
hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to low blood sugar; functions to raise blood sugar levels
glucocorticoid
corticosteroid that affects glucose metabolism
gluconeogenesis
synthesis of glucose from amino acids
glucose-sparing effect
effect of GH that causes tissues to use fatty acids instead of glucose as an energy source
glycogenolysis
breakdown of glycogen into glucose
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by insufficient dietary iodine levels
gonadotropin
hormone that regulates the gonads, including FSH and LH
growth hormone (GH)
hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that promotes protein synthesis and body growth
growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
hormone produced by the hypothalamus that inhibits growth hormone production, also called somatostatin
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
hormone released by the hypothalamus that triggers the release of GH
hormonal stimuli
release of a hormone in response to another hormone
hormone receptor
the cellular protein that binds to a hormone
humoral stimuli
control of hormone release in response to changes in extracellular fluids such as blood or the ion concentration in the blood
hyperglycemia
high blood sugar level
hyperthyroidism
overactivity of the thyroid gland
hypoglycemia
low blood sugar level
hypophyseal portal system
system of blood vessels that carries hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
hypothyroidism
underactivity of the thyroid gland
insulin
hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels; functions to lower blood glucose levels
insulin-like growth factor (IGF)
growth-promoting protein produced by the liver
intracellular hormone receptor
a hormone receptor in the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell
islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets)
endocrine cells of the pancreas
isthmus
tissue mass that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland
leptin
hormone produced by adipose tissue that promotes feelings of satiety and reduces hunger
lipid-derived hormone
hormone derived mostly from cholesterol
mineralocorticoid
corticosteroid that affects ion and water balance
neural stimuli
stimulation of endocrine glands by the nervous system
norepinephrine
hormone released by the adrenal medulla in response to a short-term stress hormone production by the gonads
osmoreceptor
receptor in the hypothalamus that monitors the concentration of electrolytes in the blood
oxytocin
hormone released by the posterior pituitary to stimulate uterine contractions during childbirth and milk let-down in the mammary glands
pancreas
organ located between the stomach and the small intestine that contains exocrine and endocrine cells
parafollicular cell
thyroid cell that produces the hormone calcitonin
parathyroid gland
gland located on the surface of the thyroid that produces parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
hormone produced by the parathyroid glands in response to low blood Ca2+ levels; functions to raise blood Ca2+ levels
peptide hormone
hormone composed of a polypeptide chain
phosphodiesterase (PDE)
enzyme that deactivates cAMP, stopping hormone activity
pituitary dwarfism
condition caused by underproduction of GH in children
pituitary gland
endocrine gland located at the base of the brain composed of an anterior and posterior region; also called hypophysis
pituitary stalk
(also, infundibulum) stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
plasma membrane hormone receptor
a hormone receptor on the surface of the plasma membrane of a cell
posterior pituitary
extension of the brain that releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus; along with the infundibulum, it is also referred to as the neurohypophysis
prolactin (PRL)
hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates milk production
prolactin-inhibiting hormone
hormone produced by the hypothalamus that inhibits the release of prolactin
prolactin-releasing hormone
hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of prolactin
renin
enzyme produced by the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys that reacts with angiotensinogen to cause the release of aldosterone
thymus
gland located behind the sternum that produces thymosin hormones that contribute to the development of the immune system
thyroglobulin
glycoprotein found in the thyroid that is converted into thyroid hormone
thyroid gland
endocrine gland located in the neck that produces thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that controls the release of T3 and T4 from the thyroid gland
thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine, T4)
thyroid hormone containing 4 iodines that controls the basal metabolic rate
triiodothyronine (T3)
thyroid hormone containing 3 iodines controls the basal metabolic rate
up-regulation
an increase in the number of hormone receptors in response to increased hormone levels