9

When you stick your hand in a bucket of ice, it grows numb after a while. Based on what you know regarding neuronal signaling, explain how the sensation of touch is blocked from signaling to the brain.

10

Lidocaine is a local anesthetic that works by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels. Explain how blocking voltage-gated sodium channels would cause numbness and pain.

13
What are the main differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?
  1. The sympathetic nervous system is activated by stressful situations, whereas the parasympathetic nervous system resets organ function of sympathetic reactions and allows animals to “rest and digest.”
  2. The parasympathetic nervous system is activated by stressful situations, whereas the sympathetic nervous system resets organ function of sympathetic reactions and allows animals to “rest and digest.”
  3. The sympathetic nervous system is involved in unconscious body function control, whereas the parasympathetic nervous system is involved in conscious body function control.
  4. The parasympathetic nervous system is involved in unconscious body function control, whereas the sympathetic nervous system is involved in conscious body function control.
14
How is the sensory-somatic nervous system involved in sensing information and motor function?
  1. The sensory-somatic nervous system transmits information from the skin, muscles, and sensory organs to the peripheral nervous system. Motor information is sent to and from the central nervous system and the muscles.
  2. The sensory-somatic nervous system transmits information from the skin, muscles, and sensory organs to the central nervous system. Motor information is sent to and from the central nervous system and the muscles.
  3. The sensory-somatic nervous system transmits information from the skin, muscles, and sensory organs to the central nervous system. Motor information is sent to and from the peripheral nervous system and the muscles.
  4. The sensory-somatic nervous system transmits information from the skin, muscles, and sensory organs to the peripheral nervous system. Motor information is sent to and from the peripheral nervous system and the muscles.
15
Public speaking can be very stressful. How can anticipating giving a public speech stimulate the sympathetic nervous system?
  1. During stress, multiple preganglionic neurons can synapse on one postganglionic neuron, and the adrenal gland releases adrenaline.
  2. During stress, one preganglionic neuron can synapse on multiple postganglionic neurons, and the thymus gland releases norepinephrine.
  3. During stress, one postganglionic neuron can synapse on multiple preganglionic neurons, and the adrenal gland releases norepinephrine.
  4. During stress, one preganglionic neuron can synapse on multiple postganglionic neurons, and the adrenal gland releases norepinephrine.
16
What might make you suspect that an individual has Alzheimer’s disease?
  1. disruptive memory loss, confusion about time or place, difficulty with planning and executing tasks, poor judgment, and/or personality changes
  2. slowed movements, balance and posture problems, rigid muscles, speech changes, and/or psychological symptoms such as dementia
  3. impaired social skills, repetitive motor behaviors, strict adherence to certain rituals, and preoccupation with specific subjects
  4. balance and posture problems, repetitive motor behaviors, difficulty with planning and executing tasks, poor judgment, and/or personality changes
17
What treatment options are available for an individual diagnosed with major depression?
  1. blood pressure medication, deep-brain stimulation, taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors, psychotherapy, and physical therapy
  2. psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, deep-brain stimulation, taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and/or taking selective melatonin reuptake inhibitors
  3. psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, deep-brain stimulation, taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and/or taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  4. blood pressure medication, classes of antipsychotics, psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, deep-brain stimulation, and/or taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors