30
Describe the process of Southern blotting.
  1. Southern Blotting is used to find DNA sequences. Fragments are separated on gel, incubated with probes to check for the sequence of interest, and transferred to a nylon membrane.
  2. Southern blotting is used to find DNA sequences. Fragments are separated on gel, transferred to a nylon membrane, and incubated with probes to check for the sequence of interest.
  3. When RNA is used, the process is called Northern blotting.
  4. Southern blotting is used to find RNA sequences. Fragments are separated on gel, incubated with probes to check for the sequence of interest, and transferred to a nylon membrane.
31
A researcher wants to study cancer cells from a patient with breast cancer. Is cloning the cancer cells an option?
  1. The cancer cells should be cloned along with a biomarker for better detection and study.
  2. The cells should be screened first in order to assure their carcinogenic nature.
  3. The cancer cells, being clones of each other already, should directly be grown in a culture media and then studied.
  4. The cancer cells should be extracted using the specific antibodies.
32
Discuss the uses of genome mapping.
  1. Genome mapping is useful in identifying human disease-causing genes, developing microbes to clean up pollutants, and increasing crop yield.
  2. Genome mapping is directly required to produce recombinants, in FISH detection, and detecting the methylated parts of genetic material.
  3. Genome mapping is useful for knowing the pedigree of diseases in humans and tracing the movement of transposons in plants.
  4. Genome mapping identifies human disease-causing genes only.
33
If you had a chance to get your genome sequenced, what are some questions you might be able to have answered about yourself?
  1. One can determine the drugs that can rectify a disease, symptoms of the disease and its severity.
  2. One can determine the ancestry and genetic origin of diseases and their susceptibility to drugs.
  3. One can predict the symptoms of a disease, the vectors to be used in gene therapy and the causal organism of the disease.
  4. One can determine the pedigree of a disease, produce recombinants and detect the presence of extracellular genes using FISH.
34
Describe an example of a genomic mapping method
  1. The radiation mapping method is an example which uses radiation to break the DNA and is affected by changes in recombination frequency.
  2. Cytogenetic mapping obtains information from microscopic analysis of stained chromosomes. It can estimate the approximate distance between markers.
  3. In restriction mapping, the DNA fragments are cut by using the restriction enzymes and then stained fragments are viewed on gel.
  4. Cytogenetic mapping obtains information from microscopic analysis of stained chromosomes. It can estimate the exact base pair distance between markers.
35
Describe three methods of gene sequencing.
  1. Chain termination method - automated sequencers are used to generate sequences of short fragments; Shotgun sequencing method - incorporation of ddNTP during DNA replication; Next-generation sequencing - cutting DNA into random fragments, sequencing using chain termination, and assembling overlapping sequences
  2. Chain termination method - incorporation of ddNTP during DNA replication; Shotgun sequencing method - cutting DNA into random fragments, sequencing using chain termination, and assembling overlapping sequences; Next-generation sequencing - automated sequencers are used to generate sequences of short fragments
  3. Chain termination method - incorporation of ddNTP during DNA replication; Shotgun sequencing method - automated sequencers are used to generate sequences of short fragments; Next-generation sequencing - cutting DNA into random fragments, sequencing using chain termination, and assembling overlapping sequences
  4. Chain termination method - automated sequencers are used to generate sequences of short fragments; Shotgun sequencing method - cutting DNA into random fragments, sequencing using chain termination, and assembling overlapping sequences; Next-generation sequencing - incorporation of ddNTP during DNA replication
36
What is the greatest challenge facing genome sequencing?
  1. the lack of resources and use of chemicals for the sequencing of the DNA fragments
  2. the ethical issues such as discrimination based on person’s genetics
  3. the use of chemicals during the sequencing methods that could incorporate mutations
  4. the scientific issues, like conserving the human genome sequences
37
How is shotgun sequencing performed?
  1. The DNA is cut into fragments, sequencing is done using the chain termination method, fragments are analyzed to see the overlapping sequences, and the entire fragment is reformed.
  2. The DNA is cut into fragments, overlapping sequences are analyzed using a computer, sequencing is done using the chain termination method, and the DNA fragment is reformed.
  3. The DNA is cut into fragments, stained with fluorescent dye, sequenced using the chain termination method, fragments are analyzed to see the overlapping sequences, and the entire DNA fragment is reformed.
  4. The DNA is cut into fragments, sequencing is done using the chain termination method, the DNA is stained with fluorescent dye, and a computer is used to analyze and reform the entire DNA fragment.
38
Coumadin is a drug frequently given to prevent excessive blood clotting in stroke or heart attack patients, which could lead to another stroke or heart attack. Administration of the drug also can result in an overdose in some patients, depending on the liver function of a patient. How could pharmacogenomics be used to assist these patients?
  1. Pharmacogenomics will be able to provide a counter-acting drug to decrease the effect of Coumadin.
  2. Pharmacogenomics will test every patient for their sensitivity to the drug.
  3. Pharmacogenomics will not be able to provide any help to patients highly sensitive to the drug.
  4. Pharmacogenomics will provide an overdose to each patient to test for the symptoms of the drug.
39
Why is so much effort being poured into genome mapping applications?
  1. Genome mapping is necessary to know the base pair difference between the markers.
  2. The mapping would help scientists understand the role of proteins in specific organelles.
  3. The mapping technique identifies the role of transposons.
  4. Genome mapping helps identify faulty alleles, which could cause diseases.
40
What is the reason for studying mitochondrial genomics that is most directly important for humans?
  1. Mitochondria evolved from bacteria; therefore, their genome is important to study.
  2. Mitochondria undergo rapid mutation and it is essential that this pattern be studied.
  3. Mitochondria contain DNA, and it is passed on from mother to offspring, which renders it helpful in tracing genealogy.
  4. Mitochondria are the only ATP-producing organelles of the cell, thus their genome is important.
41
How can proteomics complement genomics?
  1. The genes are responsible to produce proteins and this implies that proteomics complements genomics.
  2. Genomics is responsible to decide the structure of the proteins, and, thereby, the result of proteomic studies.
  3. The genome is constant but the proteome is dynamic as different tissues possess the same genes but express different genes, thereby complementing genomics.
  4. The study of genes is incomplete without the study of their respective proteins and thus they complement each other.
42
How could a proteomic map of the human genome help find a cure for cancer?
  1. A genetic map could help in identifying genes that could counteract the cause of cancer.
  2. Metabolomics can be used to study the genes producing metabolites during cancer.
  3. Proteomics detects biomarkers whose expression is affected by the disease process.
  4. The mapping helps in analyzing the inheritance of cancer-causing genes.
43
What contributions have been made through the use of microbial genomics?
  1. Microbial genomics has provided various tools to study the psychological behaviors of organisms.
  2. Microbial genomics has been useful in producing antibiotics, enzymes, improved vaccines, disease treatments and advanced cleanup techniques.
  3. Microbial genomics has contributed resistance in other bacteria by horizontal and lateral gene transfer mechanisms.
  4. Microbial genomics has contributed to fighting global warming.