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age structure
proportion of population members at specific age ranges
aggressive display
visual display by a species member to discourage other members of the same species or different species
aposematic coloration
warning coloration used as a defensive mechanism against predation
Batesian mimicry
type of mimicry where a non-harmful species takes on the warning colorations of a harmful one
behavior
change in an organism’s activities in response to a stimulus
behavioral biology
study of the biology and evolution of behavior
biotic potential (rmax)
maximal potential growth rate of a species
birth rate (B)
number of births within a population at a specific point in time
camouflage
avoid detection by blending in with the background.
carrying capacity (K)
number of individuals of a species that can be supported by the limited resources of a habitat
classical conditioning
association of a specific stimulus and response through conditioning
climax community
final stage of succession, where a stable community is formed by a characteristic assortment of plant and animal species
cognitive learning
knowledge and skills acquired by the manipulation of information in the mind
commensalism
relationship between species wherein one species benefits from the close, prolonged interaction, while the other species neither benefits nor is harmed
competitive exclusion principle
no two species within a habitat can coexist when they compete for the same resources at the same place and time
conditioned behavior
behavior that becomes associated with a specific stimulus through conditioning
courtship display
visual display used to attract a mate
death rate (D)
number of deaths within a population at a specific point in time
demographic-based population model
modern model of population dynamics incorporating many features of the r- and K-selection theory
demography
statistical study of changes in populations over time
density-dependent regulation
regulation of population that is influenced by population density, such as crowding effects; usually involves biotic factors
density-independent regulation
regulation of populations by factors that operate independent of population density, such as forest fires and volcanic eruptions; usually involves abiotic factors
distraction display
visual display used to distract predators away from a nesting site
Emsleyan/Mertensian mimicry
type of mimicry where a harmful species resembles a less harmful one
energy budget
allocation of energy resources for body maintenance, reproduction, and parental care
environmental disturbance
change in the environment caused by natural disasters or human activities
ethology
biological study of animal behavior
exponential growth
accelerating growth pattern seen in species under conditions where resources are not limiting
fecundity
potential reproductive capacity of an individual
fixed action pattern
series of instinctual behaviors that, once initiated, always goes to completion regardless of changes in the environment
foraging
behaviors species use to find food
foundation species
species which often forms the major structural portion of the habitat
habituation
ability of a species to ignore repeated stimuli that have no consequence
host
organism a parasite lives on
imprinting
identification of parents by newborns as the first organism they see after birth
innate behavior
instinctual behavior that is not altered by changes in the environment
intersexual selection
selection of a desirable mate of the opposite sex
interspecific competition
competition between species for resources in a shared habitat or environment
intrasexual selection
competition between members of the same sex for a mate
intraspecific competition
competition between members of the same species
island biogeography
study of life on island chains and how their geography interacts with the diversity of species found there
iteroparity
life history strategy characterized by multiple reproductive events during the lifetime of a species
J-shaped growth curve
shape of an exponential growth curve
K-selected species
species suited to stable environments that produce a few, relatively large offspring and provide parental care
keystone species
species whose presence is key to maintaining biodiversity in an ecosystem and to upholding an ecological community’s structure
kin selection
sacrificing one’s own life so that one’s genes will be passed on to future generations by relatives
kinesis
undirected movement of an organism in response to a stimulus
learned behavior
behavior that responds to changes in the environment
life history
inherited pattern of resource allocation under the influence of natural selection and other evolutionary forces
life table
table showing the life expectancy of a population member based on its age
logistic growth
leveling off of exponential growth due to limiting resources
mark and recapture
technique used to determine population size in mobile organisms
migration
long-range seasonal movement of animal species
monogamy
mating system whereby one male and one female remain coupled for at least one mating season
mortality rate
proportion of population surviving to the beginning of an age interval that die during the age interval
Müllerian mimicry
type of mimicry where species share warning coloration and all are harmful to predators
mutualism
symbiotic relationship between two species where both species benefit
one-child policy
China’s policy to limit population growth by limiting urban couples to have only one child or face the penalty of a fine
operant conditioning
learned behaviors in response to positive and/or negative reinforcement
parasite
organism that uses resources from another species, the host
pioneer species
first species to appear in primary and secondary succession
polyandry
mating system where one female mates with many males
polygyny
mating system where one male mates with many females
population density
number of population members divided by the area or volume being measured
population growth rate
number of organisms added in each reproductive generation
population size (N)
number of population members in a habitat at the same time
primary succession
succession on land that previously has had no life
quadrat
square made of various materials used to determine population size and density in slow moving or stationary organisms
r-selected species
species suited to changing environments that produce many offspring and provide little or no parental care
reflex action
action in response to direct physical stimulation of a nerve
relative species abundance
absolute population size of a particular species relative to the population sizes of other species within the community
S-shaped growth curve
shape of a logistic growth curve
secondary succession
succession in response to environmental disturbances that move a community away from its equilibrium
semelparity
life history strategy characterized by a single reproductive event followed by death
signal
method of communication between animals including those obtained by the senses of smell, hearing, sight, or touch
species dispersion pattern
(also, species distribution pattern) spatial location of individuals of a given species within a habitat at a particular point in time
species richness
number of different species in a community
survivorship curve
graph of the number of surviving population members versus the relative age of the member
symbiosis
close interaction between individuals of different species over an extended period of time that impacts the abundance and distribution of the associating populations
taxis
directed movement in response to a stimulus
zero population growth
steady population size where birth rates and death rates are equal