In an effort to enter all identified species on Earth into a digital catalog, scientists are preparing a unique tag for each species. The following algorithms have been generated to create unique tags. Estimate which algorithm is best suited for the task.
  1. an algorithm that creates 15,000 to 20,000 unique tags
  2. an algorithm that creates 150,000 to 200,000 unique tags
  3. an algorithm that creates 1.5 million to 2 million unique tags
  4. an algorithm that creates 10 million to 20 million unique tags
Two genera of birds exist side-by-side on an island. Genus A is characterized by a few species of similar, genetic material. Genus B contains different species of birds with a wide variety of genetic traits. After a volcanic explosion changes the ecosystem, which genus has the highest probability of surviving the disaster?
  1. Genus A, which contains well adapted species.
  2. Genus B, which has greater genetic diversity and is more likely to have traits that confer an advantage in the new environment.
  3. Genus A, which can serve as ancestors for the new species.
  4. Genus B, because these species likely evolved from Genus A species in the past.
A report describes the biodiversity of an island in a remote archipelago in the Pacific Ocean having a larger number of species of birds than neighboring islands. The biologists that investigated the ecosystem of the island described it as an example of adaptive radiation. Their conclusion is based on the fact that they observed _____.
  1. a burst of speciation
  2. the presence of of invasive species
  3. a hypothesized cause of a mass extinction
  4. evidence of an apex predator
Findings from layers dating to the Cambrian geological period show an appearance of many new organisms in addition to older forms of life. The Cambrian explosion corresponds to a time where _____.
  1. New species radiated from existing species.
  2. New species appeared due to spontaneous mutations.
  3. Ancient species were replaced by newly evolved species.
  4. A massive die-out freed ecosystems for new species.
Paleontologists are analyzing fossils from a newly excavated site with layers dating from several geological periods. They established a particular layer probably correlates to a mass extinction. Which of the following is the most likely reason for their conclusion?
  1. Over 95 percent of species present in older layers have disappeared in this particular layer.
  2. An asteroid impact altered the geological terrain significantly.
  3. All of the fossils observed were of larger sized organisms.
  4. A loss of over 50 percent of species was observed.
What is a likely reason that small animals survived the cataclysmic impact of a large meteorite that caused the massive extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleocene?
  1. Small animals stopped being hunted by dinosaurs.
  2. Small animals do not depend on plants for food.
  3. Small animals needed less food for survival and reproduce rapidly.
  4. Small animals fed on the dead dinosaurs.
Scientists are evaluating an island ecosystem to be upgraded to a hot spot of biodiversity. They conduct field research on the species that populate the area. Their final assessment on the biodiversity of the ecosystem will be based on which estimate?
  1. the total number of species in an ecosystem
  2. the total number of organisms in an ecosystem
  3. the total number of species divided by the area of the ecosystem
  4. the total number of endangered species in an ecosystem
A secondary plant compound might be used for which of the following?
  1. a new crop variety
  2. a new drug
  3. a soil nutrient
  4. a new species
A component of snake venom kills the prey by preventing blood from clotting. Which of the following is the most likely medical application for the active component?
  1. promoting scab formation
  2. speeding healing of wounds
  3. relaxing muscle pain
  4. a blood thinner
Different varieties of potatoes are known to thrive at different altitudes. What could be the related benefit of maintaining the diversity of potato plants?
  1. Diverse types of pollinators can be involved.
  2. The range of usable land is extended.
  3. The taste of potatoes when fried is improved.
  4. Resistance to pests can be introduced if necessary.
Which of the following agricultural crops is most likely to survive a catastrophic event?
  1. monoculture of a crop on a large surface
  2. diverse varieties of a crop surrounded by a diverse ecosystem
  3. single crop surrounded by a diverse ecosystem
  4. diverse varieties of a crop in a simple ecosystem
Which factor is present in an ecosystem that performs the same role as a pesticide?
  1. pollination
  2. plant resistance to chemicals
  3. asexual reproduction
  4. presence of insect predators
Urban designers included wetlands and lagoons connected to a water treatment plant to a new subdivision of homes. The designers would have most likely applied which principle of conservation to their plans?
  1. ecosystem service
  2. biodiversity preservation
  3. habitat restoration
  4. chemical diversity
Most antibiotics in use today are prepared or derived from____.
  1. secondary compounds from microorganisms
  2. secondary compounds from viruses
  3. fully synthetic chemical compounds
  4. compounds synthesized by plants
Loss of biodiversity and accelerations of extinction rates have several causes. Which of the following situations causes direct loss of biodiversity owing to loss of habitat?
  1. fishing cod at a rate that is greater than natural replacement
  2. converting a prairie to a farm field
  3. introduction of an invasive ornamental plant in a new ecosystem
  4. emission of greenhouse gases increasing the average temperatures of an area
Which of the following activities will result in major habitat loss?
  1. picking wild flowers in a meadow
  2. cutting a tree in one’s backyard
  3. a farmer switching from wheat to soy crop
  4. building a dam that will flood a large plain
Exotic predator species are especially threatening to what kind of ecosystem?
  1. deserts
  2. marine ecosystems
  3. islands
  4. tropical forests
Backpackers returning from a long trip abroad are stopped by customs and asked whether they brought back plants, flowers or fruit from their trip location. Their fruit bought at a local market is confiscated. Why was the fruit confiscated?
  1. The hikers are supposed to pay duty on imported fruit.
  2. The fruit can be processed to produce illicit drugs.
  3. The fruit seed could be planted and could eliminate all local species.
  4. The fruit may introduce new exotic pests that threaten local plants.
Grizzly bears and black bears have a varied diet and hunting grounds. On the other hand, polar bears feed mostly on seals. They walk on the sea ice and wait by breathing holes for seals to emerge from the water for fresh air. Which of the following animals would be most affected by the melting of sea ice in Alaska?
  1. grizzly bears
  2. polar bears
  3. koalas
  4. black bears

A graph is shown with the title "Change in Latitude of Bird Center of Abundance, 1966–2013.” The x–axis is labeled “Year” and the domain goes from 1965 to 2015. The y–axis is labeled “Average distance moed north (miles)” and ranges from –20 to 80. The graph shows a thick line going from (1965, 0) to (2013, 40) in a general upward trend, though not a straight line, it has some peaks and valleys. On either side of the line there is a shaded region mirroring the same peaks and valleys that grows wider on either side of the main line going left to right. It starts at the same place as the main line and ends up 20 above and 20 below the main line and is bounded by thinner orange lines.

This graph shows the movement northward of wintering grounds of North American bird species. The trend closely mirrors the increase in average winter temperatures. What is one problem that could develop from birds using farther north areas?

  1. Abandoned wintering grounds are left with a poorer ecosystem.
  2. Movement northward leads to overcrowding of reproductive grounds.
  3. Food competition increases with birds that do not migrate.
  4. All of the above.
The method of DNA barcoding allows cataloguing of an organism using rapid sequencing methods. The choice of which gene to use for barcoding is guided by its rate of evolution. Which genes are most useful for barcoding eukaryotes with the exception of plants?
  1. nuclear genes
  2. chloroplast genes
  3. plasmids
  4. mitochondrial
The choice of using a mitochondrial gene for barcoding of genes depends on _____.
  1. the fact that suitable primers for sequencing are not available for nuclear genes
  2. Any gene can be used.
  3. the slow rate of evolution in mitochondrial genes
  4. that there is less variability between individuals of a same species than between individuals of different species
While planning an ecological preserve, conservationists plan for an area limited in size with highly diversified niches, which provide habitats to a rich diversity of species. With these constraints in mind, decide which of the following ecosystems is the foundation of the preserve design?
  1. desert
  2. islands
  3. the tropical rain forest
  4. the temperate rain forest
A marine preserve is designed off the coast of the Northwest of the US. The coast is dotted by several Native American reservations where the traditional occupation is catching and processing fish. Which parties must be involved in the design of the preserve?
  1. marine biologists only
  2. marine biologists and oceanographers
  3. marine biologists, oceanographers, and policy makers
  4. marine biologists, oceanographers, policy makers, and representatives of the tribes
Loss of wetlands has a great impact both on the biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem. Wetlands provide rich habitats and act as a filter for pollution. Some loss of wetland is due to silt and invasive species clogging water flow.To restore these wetlands, it is often enough to _____.
  1. Open new waterways.
  2. Restore the water supply.
  3. Re-introduce endangered animals.
  4. Introduce water adapted plants.
Acid mining pollutes nearby streams by acidifying water and discharging highly toxic by-products. Bacteria have been used to neutralize the pH and detoxify chemical compounds making the stream suitable for animals and plants. This approach to restoration of habitat is an example of _____.
  1. keystone species introduction
  2. bioremediation
  3. ecosystem preservation
  4. biological control
What was the name of the first international agreement on climate change?
  1. Red List
  2. Montreal Protocol
  3. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
  4. Kyoto Protocol