The table shows the amount of oxygen consumed (third column) by different animals (first column) at different temperatures. This type of apparatus measures the change in volume of air to detect the removal of oxygen. However, organisms produce carbon dioxide as they take in oxygen. To provide accurate measurements, what would you need to add to the setup?
- a substance that removes carbon dioxide gas
- a plant that will add oxygen to allow an animal to breathe
- a glucose reserve
- a substance that adds carbon dioxide gas
According to the data, the crickets at 25∘C have greater oxygen consumption per gram of tissue than do the crickets at 10∘C. This trend in oxygen consumption is the opposite of that in mice. The difference in trends in oxygen consumption among crickets and mice is due to what?
- their difference in size
- their mode of nutrition
- their difference in metabolic heat production
- their mode of ATP production
Where in a cell does glycolysis take place in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
- the cytosol
- the mitochondria
- the plasma membrane
- the nucleus
A new species of obligate anaerobe, a bacterium, has been found that lives in hot, acidic conditions. While other pathways may also be present, which metabolic pathway is the most likely to be present in this species?
- aerobic respiration
- the citric acid cycle
- oxidative phosphorylation
What evidence provides the strongest support that glycolysis is an older and more conserved pathway than the citric acid cycle?
- Glycolysis is the primitive pathway as it is found in all three domains. It also occurs in anaerobic conditions and in the cytosol.
- This pathway occurs in the cytosol, is found in all animals and plants, and does not require oxygen.
- Glycolysis takes place in anaerobic conditions, can metabolize cholesterol and fatty acids, and occurs even in methanogens.
- This pathway only occurs in the mitochondria. It is highly flexible because it is found in almost all organisms.
What is Structure X in the graphic?
- the inner mitochondrial membrane
- the mitochondrial matrix
- a eukaryotic plasma membrane
- the cytosol
What would be the most direct result of blocking structure Z in the graphic?
- Cytochrome c would not pass electrons from complex III to complex IV.
- Ubiquinone would not pass electrons from complex III to complex IV.
- NADH would not be converted to NAD+ and the electron transport chain would stop.
- No protons would be pumped across the membrane.
Where do the electrons moving along the membrane in the figure come from, and where do the electrons end up?
- The electrons are released by NADH and FADH2 and finally accepted by oxygen to form water.
- The electrons are given off by water and finally accepted by NAD+ and FAD+ to produce the energy currencies NADH and FADH2.
- The electrons are emitted by ubiquinone that are, in turn, transferred from complex I to complex II. Water finally accepts the electrons.
- The electrons are given out by NADH and FADH2 and are, in turn, finally accepted by H2O.
Glucose catabolism pathways are sequential and lead to the production of ATP. What is the correct order of the pathways for the breakdown of a molecule of glucose as shown in the formula?C6H12O6+O2→CO2+H2O+energy
- oxidative phosphorylation →→ citric acid cycle→→ oxidation of pyruvate →→ glycolysis
- the oxidation of pyruvate →→ citric acid cycle →→ glycolysis →→ oxidative phosphorylation
- glycolysis →→ oxidation of pyruvate →→ citric acid cycle →→ oxidative phosphorylation
- citric acid cycle →→ glycolysis →→ oxidative phosphorylation →→ oxidation of pyruvate
Which of the following statements most directly supports the claim that different species of organisms use different metabolic strategies to meet their energy requirements for growth, reproduction, and homeostasis?
- During cold periods, pond-dwelling animals can increase the number of unsaturated fatty acids in their cell membranes while some plants make antifreeze proteins to prevent ice crystal formation in their tissues.
- Bacteria lack introns while many eukaryotic genes contain many of these intervening sequences.
- Carnivores have more teeth that are specialized for ripping food while herbivores have more teeth specialized for grinding food.
- Plants generally use starch molecules for storage while animals use glycogen and fats for storage.
Which of the following best describes how the citric acid cycle relates to glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and chemiosmosis?
- Glycolysis produces pyruvate, which is converted to acetyl-CoA and enters the citric acid cycle. This cycle produces NADH and FADH2, which donate electrons to the electron transport chain to pump protons and produce ATP through chemiosmosis. Production of ATP using an electron transport chain and chemiosmosis is called oxidative phosphorylation.
- The citric acid produces pyruvate, which converts to glucose to enter glycolysis. This pathway produces NADH and FADH2, which enter oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP through chemiosmosis.
- Citric acid produces NADH and FADH2, which undergo oxidative phosphorylation. This produces ATP by pumping protons through chemiosmosis. The ATP produced is utilized in large amount in the process of glycolysis.
- Glycolysis produces pyruvate, which directly enters the citric acid cycle. This cycle produces the energy currency that undergoes the electron transport chain to produce water and ATP.