1
When viewing a specimen through a light microscope, what is a method that scientists use to make it easier to see individual components of cells?
  1. a beam of electrons
  2. high temperatures
  3. radioactive isotopes
  4. special stains
2
What is the basic unit of life?
  1. cell
  2. organism
  3. organ
  4. tissue
3
Which of the following statements is part of the cell theory?
  1. All living organisms are made of cells.
  2. All cells contain DNA that they pass on to daughter cells.
  3. All cells depend on their surroundings to provide energy.
  4. All cells have a nucleus.
4
Which of the following could most effectively be visualized with a scanning electron microscope?
  1. cells swimming in a drop of pond water.
  2. details of structures inside cells
  3. a three-dimensional view of the surface of a membrane
  4. the movement of molecules inside the cell
5
Who was the first to clearly identify and name individual cells?
  1. Anton van Leeuwenhoek.
  2. Matthias Schleiden
  3. Robert Hooke
  4. Theodore Schwann
6
Which of the following observations contributed to the cell theory?
  1. Animal and plant cells have nuclei and organelles.
  2. Non-living material cannot give rise to living organisms.
  3. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane.
  4. Viruses replicate.
7
In order to obtain some materials and remove waste, what process is used by prokaryotes?
  1. cell division
  2. diffusion
  3. flagellar motion
  4. ribosomes
8
When bacteria lack fimbriae, what are they less likely to do?
  1. Adhere to cell surfaces
  2. retain the ability to divide
  3. swim through bodily fluids
  4. synthesize proteins
9
What is a difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic​ cells?
  1. Both cells have a nucleus but prokaryotic cells lack cytoplasm.
  2. Both cells have cytoplasm but prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus.
  3. Both cells have DNA but prokaryotic cells lack a cell membrane.
  4. Both cells have a cell membrane but prokaryotic cells lack DNA.
10
Eukaryotic cells contain complex organelles that carry out their chemical reactions. Prokaryotes lack many of these complex organelles, although they have a variety of unique structures of their own. However, most prokaryotic cells can exchange nutrients with the outside environment faster than most eukaryotic cells. Why is this so?
  1. Most prokaryotic cells are smaller, and have a higher surface-to-volume ratio, than eukaryotic cells.
  2. Most prokaryotic cells are larger, and have a higher surface-to-volume ratio than eukaryotic cells.
  3. Most prokaryotic cells are smaller, and have a lower surface-to-volume ratio than eukaryotic cells.
  4. Prokaryotic cells are larger and have a lower surface-to-volume ratio than eukaryotic cells.
11
Which of the following is surrounded by two phospholipid bilayers?
  1. lysosomes
  2. ribosomes
  3. nucleolus
  4. nucleus
12
Peroxisomes got their name because hydrogen peroxide is ______.
  1. a cofactor for the organelles’ enzymes
  2. incorporated into their membranes
  3. produced during their oxidation reactions
  4. used in their detoxification reactions
13
In plant cells, the function of the lysosomes is carried out by what?
  1. nuclei
  2. peroxisomes
  3. ribosomes
  4. vacuole
14
Which of the following is found both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
  1. mitochondrion
  2. nucleus
  3. ribosomes
  4. centrosomes
15
Which of the following structures is not found in prokaryotic cells?
  1. plasma membrane
  2. chloroplast
  3. nucleoid
  4. ribosome
16
Where would you find DNA, the genetic material, in an animal cell?
  1. in the centriole
  2. only in the mitochondria
  3. in the mitochondria and the nucleus
17
Which of the following is most likely to have the greatest concentration of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)?
  1. a cell that secretes enzymes
  2. a cell that destroys pathogens
  3. a cell that makes steroid hormones
  4. a cell that engages in photosynthesis
18
Which of the following sequences correctly lists in order the steps involved in the incorporation of a protein within a cell membrane?
  1. synthesis of the protein on the ribosome; modification in the Golgi apparatus; packaging in the endoplasmic reticulum; modification in the vesicle
  2. synthesis of the protein on the lysosome; modification in the Golgi; packaging in the vesicle; distribution in the endoplasmic reticulum
  3. synthesis of the protein on the ribosome; modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; tagging in the Golgi; distribution via the vesicle
  4. synthesis of the protein on the lysosome; packaging in the vesicle; distribution via the Golgi; modification in the endoplasmic reticulum
19
Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?
  1. endoplasmic reticulum
  2. Golgi apparatus
  3. lysosome
  4. mitochondrion
20
Which of the following have the ability to disassemble and reform quickly?
  1. intermediate filaments and microtubules
  2. microfilaments and intermediate filaments
  3. microfilaments and microtubules
  4. only intermediate filaments
21
Which of the following do not play a role in intracellular movement?
  1. intermediate filaments and microtubules
  2. microfilaments and intermediate filaments
  3. microfilaments and microtubules
  4. only intermediate filaments
22
Which components of the cytoskeleton are responsible for the contraction of muscles?
  1. intermediate filaments
  2. microfilaments
  3. microtubules
23
What type of junctions prevent the movement of chemicals between two adjacent animal cells?
  1. desmosomes
  2. gap junctions
  3. plasmodesmata
  4. tight junctions
24
Gap junctions are formed by ________.
  1. gaps in the cell wall of plants
  2. protein complexes that form channels between cells
  3. tight, rivet-like regions in the membranes of adjacent cells
  4. a tight knitting of membranes
25
Some animal cells produce extensive extracellular matrix. You would expect their ribosomes to synthesize large amounts of which of the following proteins?
  1. actin
  2. collagen
  3. myosin
  4. tubulin
26
Which of the following molecules are typically found in the extracellular matrix?
  1. nucleic acids such as DNA
  2. peptidoglycans
  3. cellulose
  4. proteoglycans