Who was the first person to isolate the material that came to be known as nucleic acids?
- Frederick Griffith
- Friedrich Miescher
- James Watson
- Oswald Avery
What is bacterial transformation?
- The transformation of a bacterium occurs during replication.
- It is the transformation of a bacterium into a pathogenic form.
- Transformation of bacteria involves changes in its chromosome.
- Transformation is a process in which external DNA is taken up by a cell, thereby changing morphology and physiology.
What type of nucleic acid material is analyzed the most frequently in forensics cases?
- cytoplasmic rRNA
- mitochondrial DNA
- nuclear chromosomal DNA
- nuclear mRNA
The experiments by Hershey and Chase helped confirm that DNA was the hereditary material on the basis of the finding of what?
- Radioactive phages were found in the pellet.
- Radioactive cells were found in the supernatant.
- Radioactive sulfur was found inside the cell.
- Radioactive phosphorus was found in the cell.
If DNA of a particular species was analyzed and it was found that it contains 27% A, what would be the percentage of C?
If the sequence of the 5’ to 3’ strand is AATGCTAC, then the complementary sequence has the following sequence:
The DNA double helix does not have which of the following?
- antiparallel configuration
- complementary base pairing
- major and minor grooves
What is a purine?
- a double ring structure with a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring
- a single six-membered ring
- a six-membered ring
- three phosphates covalently bonded by phosphodiester bonds
What is the name of the method developed by Fred Sanger to sequence DNA?
- Dideoxy Chain Termination method
- Double Helix Determination
- Polymerase Chain Reaction
- Polymer Gel Electrophoresis
What happens when a dideoxynucleotide is added to a developing DNA strand?
- The chain extends to the end of the DNA strand.
- The DNA stand is duplicated.
- The chain is not extended any further.
- The last codon is repeated.
In eukaryotes, what is DNA wrapped around?
- single-stranded binding proteins
- sliding clamp
Which enzyme is only found in prokaryotic organisms?
- DNA gyrase
Uracil is found where?
- chromosomal DNA
- mitochondrial DNA
What prevents the further development of a DNA strand in Sanger sequencing?
- the addition of DNA reductase
- the addition of dideoxynucleotides
- the elimination of DNA polymerase
- the addition of uracil
Which of the following is not one of the proteins involved during the formation of the replication fork?
- origin of replication
- single-strand binding proteins
In which direction does DNA replication take place?
- 5’ to 3’
- 3’ to 5’
Meselson and Stahl’s experiments proved that DNA replicates by which mode?
Which set of results was found in the Meselson and Stahl’s experiments?
- The original chromosome was kept intact and a duplicate was made.
- The original chromosome was split and half went to each duplicate.
- The original chromosome was mixed with new material and each duplicate strand contained both old and new.
- The original chromosome was used as a template for two new chromosomes and discarded.
Which enzyme initiates the splitting of the double DNA strand during replication?
- DNA gyrase
Which enzyme is most directly responsible for the main process of producing a new DNA strand?
- DNA pol I
- DNA pol II
- DNA pol III
- DNA pol I, DNA pol II, and DNA pol III
Which portion of a chromosome contains Okazaki fragments?
- lagging strand
- leading strand
Which of the following does the enzyme primase synthesize?
- DNA primer
- Okazaki fragments
- phosphodiester linkage
- RNA primer
The ends of the linear chromosomes are maintained by what?
- DNA polymerase
What is the difference in the rate of replication of nucleotides between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
- Eukaryotes are 50 times slower.
- Eukaryotes are 20 times faster.
- Prokaryotes are 100 times slower.
- Prokaryotes are10 times faster.
What are Autonomously Replicating Sequences (ARS)?
- areas of prokaryotic chromosomes that initiate copying
- portions of prokaryotic chromosomes that can be transferred from one organism to another
- areas of eukaryotic chromosomes that are equivalent to the origin of replication in E. coli
- portions of eukaryotic chromosomes that replicate independent of the parent chromosome
What type of body cell does not exhibit telomerase activity?
- adult stem cells
- embryonic cells
- germ cells
- liver cells
During proofreading, which of the following enzymes reads the DNA?
- DNA polymerase
If a prokaryotic cell is replicating nucleotides at a rate of 100 per second, how fast would a eukaryotic cell be replicating nucleotides?
- 1000 per second
- 100 per second
- 10 per second
- 1 per second
Which type of point mutation would have no effect on gene expression?
Which type of point mutation would result in the substitution of a stop codon for an amino acid?
You have developed skin cancer and you are pregnant. You are worried that your child will be born with the cancer you have while carrying the baby. Should you be worried?
- Yes, the cancer can spread to the baby.
- No, the mutations causing the cancer are in somatic cells, not reproductive germ cells.
- Yes, the mutations can be passed on to the child through the placenta.
- No, UV light only affects adult, somatic cells.
What is the initial mechanism for repairing nucleotide errors in DNA?
- DNA polymerase proofreading
- mismatch repair
- nucleotide excision repair
- thymine dimers
Nucleotide excision repair is often employed when UV exposure causes the formation of what?
- phosphodiester bonds
- purine conjugates
- pyrimidine dimers
- tetrad disassembly