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RNA Editing

Occasionally researches encounter a gene with a sequence of nucleotides that does not match exactly that in its RNA product:

  • messenger RNA (mRNA) or
  • ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or
  • transfer RNA (tRNA) and even
  • microRNA (miRNA)

If the product is mRNA, some of the codons in the open reading frame (ORF)

The Transcriptome

Only a very small percentage (1.2% in humans) of the DNA in vertebrate genomes encodes proteins (the "proteome") because

  • the exons of most genes are separated by much-longer introns
  • between our genes lie vast amounts of DNA much of which appears to regulate the expression of our genes but is not transcribed and translated into a protein product. [More]

So even when the complete sequence of a genome is known, it is often difficult to spot particular genes (open reading