In this section, you will explore the following questions:

  • What is cross-reactivity?
  • What is the basic structure of an antibody, and what are the functions of antibodies?
  • How are antibodies produced?

Connection for AP® Courses

Much of the information in this section is not within the scope for AP®Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced and secreted by plasma cells (differentiated B lymphocytes) that mediate the humoral immune response

In this section, you will explore the following questions:

  • What is adaptive immunity?
  • What is the difference between adaptive and innate immunity?
  • What are the cell-mediated immune response and the humoral immune response?
  • What is immune tolerance?

Connection for AP® Courses

Adaptive immune response takes days or even weeks to become established—much longer than the innate response—and is more specific to pathogens and involves molecular memory. This type of

In this section, you will explore the following questions:

  • What are examples of physical and chemical immune barriers?
  • What are the immediate and induced immune responses?
  • What are natural killer cells, and what is their role in immunity?
  • What are the features of histocompatibility class I molecules?
  • How do the proteins in a complement system function to destroy extracellular pathogens?

Connection for AP® Courses

Much of the information about the different organ