In this section, you will explore the following questions:

  • What are advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction?
  • What are examples of methods of asexual reproduction among animals?
  • What are examples of methods of sexual reproduction among animals?

Connection for AP® Courses

Much of the information about the different reproductive systems of animals is not within the scope for AP®. You likely studied human reproduction in a health course or

Photo shows a yellow seahorse with its tail curled around a fragment of coral.
Figure 34.1Female seahorses produce eggs for reproduction that are then fertilized by the male. Unlike almost all other animals, the male seahorse then gestates the young until birth. (credit


Describe the difference between the mammalian cell-mediated and humoral responses to a pathogen. Include in your description the roles of antigens and antibodies, T-cells, B-cells, inoculation with vaccines, and the relative response times.


Immune response must recognize threat by distinguishing wellness from un-wellness. Recognition of pathogen-generated antigens is an adaptive response. Generic pathogen identifiers such as